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59 terms

Bio 1402 Chapter 26

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4.5 billion years
The age of the Earth according to modern estimations is
prokaryotes
The oldest microfossils are of
3.5 billion years ago
Life apparently originated on Earth about
oxygen
The early Earth's reducing atmosphere probably contained all of the following except
inoculating with a few bacteria to get the process started
An experimental test of the hypothesis to explain the origin of the first organic compounds on Earth might include all of the following sequential steps (starting with A and proceeding to E) except
amino acids
Which of the following was produced in experiments on primitive Earth conditions conducted by Miller-Urey and others?
prokaryotes
All of the following were produced in experiments on primitive Earth conditions conducted by Miller-Urey and others, except for
multicellularity
The characteristics of life include all of the following except
photosynthesis
All living organisms possess the following features except
RNA
It has been discovered that enzyme-like catalysis can be carried out not only by enzymes but also by
2.5 billion years old
The oldest fossils of eukaryotes have been estimated to be
Archaebacteria
A kingdom not containing eukaryotes is
meteors and/or cosmic dust clouds carried various complex organic molecules to the Earth, which eventually evolved into what we know today.
One of the theories about the origin of life is panspermia. Panspermia proposes that
There had to be a reducing atmosphere rather than one with oxygen, otherwise formation of those molecules would have been extremely difficult.
Of the following primitive Earth conditions and chemical reactions, which one do biochemists know was important to the formation of amino acids and subsequent formation of complex carbon molecules that are common to life?
A. sexual reproduction.
B. multicellularity.
C. endosymbiosis.
D. horizontal gene transfer (HGT).
E. mutation.
F. all of the above
Diversity among the vast numbers of organisms that have arisen on Earth can be attributed to ____.
Organic molecules important to life could have been formed from a vast array of simple chemicals.
Which of the following was demonstrated by the Miller-Urey experiment?
Fungi
One day while Dr. Rogers was working in his taxonomic laboratory, a package arrived with the following label: "Beware, the contents of this package contains a eukaryotic, multicellular, nonmotile, nonphotosynthetic life form. Open with extreme caution." Dr. Rogers quickly closed the doors and windows of his laboratory and opened the package. To which kingdom of life could this life form belong?
order
In the taxonomic hierarchical system for grouping organisms, the next higher group to a family is
six kingdoms
Most biologists now recognize and use a newer system for classification of all organisms that identify
four kingdoms
Eukaryotic organisms are classified into a total of
endosymbiosis
Eukaryotic cells acquired mitochondria and chloroplasts by
contain organelles
All living organisms share all of the following features in common except they
Linnaeus
The binomial system of classification of organisms was developed by
species
The biological name of an organism in the binomial system contains two parts, the genus and the
hierarchical
In that any one group fits within a more inclusive group, the biological classification systems are
class, order, family, genus, species
Of the following, the correct order from largest, most inclusive group to smallest, most specific group, is
kingdom
Of the following, the largest, most inclusive grouping in the classification scheme is
3
Living organisms can be divided into _____ domains.
mitochondria and chloroplasts
Two principal organelles of eukaryotes that share features with one another and with bacteria from which they apparently were derived are the
cyanobacteria
The group that probably gave rise to chloroplasts is the
paraphyletic
Kingdom Protista can be described as
Viridiplantae
Kingdom ____________would include green algae and land plants.
kingdom
Molecular data indicates that land plants belong in the same ________ as green algae.
endosymbiosis
The phenomenon that probably gave rise to the organelles in eukaryotes is
eukaryotes only
True multicellularity is a major characteristic of
A. bacteria.
B. protists.
C. yeasts.
D. prokaryotes.
E. none of the kingdoms.
Lacking one of the criteria to be strictly classified as living units and containing fragments of eukaryotic genomes, the viruses are included in
genus
Pinus in the scientific name Pinus ponderosa is the
Eukarya
An organism has just been located and needs to be placed into one of the domains of life. The characteristics that have been reported are multicellular and autotrophic. Based on your knowledge, which domain should this organism be placed?
segmentation evolved separately in these two groups
Annelids and arthropods were thought to be closely related in one sense because of the character of segmentation. Molecular data has recently shown that
chordates
Segmentation is thought to have evolved three times, twice in protostomes and once in deuterstomes as seen in the
class
If two organisms are in the same phylum and the same order, then they also belong to the same
Archaea and Eukarya share the characteristic of growth not inhibited by streptomycin and chloramphenicol
Which statement is an accurate description of the characteristics found in the examples below that relate to the three Domains of life?
how mitochondria and chloroplasts were derived from prokaryotic cells
A scientist is studying endosymbiosis in cells. This means she is investigating
Viruses can be placed in the Archaea Domain of life because of their similarities with these primitive organisms
Which of the following statements about viruses is not accurate?
African and South American clades
Eutherians mammals are placed in four groups, a major split occurring between
sexual reproduction
Which of the following is generally not considered essential to explain the origin of life on Earth?
ATP
In the original experiments by Stanley Miller and Harold Urey to synthesize organic molecules in an abiotic environment, which one of the following would you not expect to find in the collection flask?
O2
The apparatus in the figure was used by Stanley Miller and Harold Urey to study the origin of life on Earth. The presence of what compound in chamber B in the apparatus will prevent the accumulation of simple organic molecules in compartment A?
some of the organic compounds needed for life could be formed abiotically
Urey and Miller, using a sterile container with boiling water, a reducing atmosphere, an electric spark, and a condenser, were able to determine that
ribozymes
The first living organisms that arose on earth are believed to have evolved according to a series of steps represented by the appearance of specific molecules. Of the molecules listed, which one would most likely have appeared fourth?
class; family
The order Passeriformes includes all of the so-called perching birds. Select a choice (A-E) to make the following sentence true: The next more inclusive taxon to the Passeriformes would be the ________; the next less inclusive taxon would be the __________.
absence of nuclear envelope
Although the Archaebacteria were classified in the same group with the Bacteria, they are probably more closely related to the Eukarya. Which one of the following features do they share in common with the bacteria?
The brown algae acquired their chloroplasts by engulfing a prokaryotic cell with chloroplasts
Which one of the following statements about endosymbiosis and the origin of the eukaryotic cell is false?
The structure of the eukaryotic cell allows the physical separation of replication and transcription.
Which one of the following statements about the characteristics of eukaryotes is false?
Viruses are considered detached fragments of prokaryotic genomes
Which one of the following statements about viruses is false?
The choanoflagellates are more closely related to the fungi than to other protists
Which one of the following statements about protists is false?
Land plants are now considered a subgroup within the Chlorophyta
Which one of the following statements about origin of land plants is false?
Segmentation is an ancestral trait for the protostomes
Which one of the following statements about the classification of annelids and arthropods is false?
Molecular phylogenetics suggests that myriapods and insects may be sister clades.
Which one of the following statements about the classification of arthropods and crustaceans is false?