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70 terms

Pathology of Uterus (HA Chap 41)

questions derived from chapter 41 of the Hagen-Ansert DMS Textbook
STUDY
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The vagina runs ______ and _____ from cervix, between bladder and rectum.
anterior and caudal
Most common congenital abnormality of the female genital tract is _________ resulting in obstruction.
imperforated hymen
Accumulation of fluid in uterus
hydrometra
Accumulation of blood in uterus
hematometra
Accumulation of pus in uterus
pyometra
Vaginal tumors are rare, but the ones found are usually ________ or __________
adenocarcinoma or rhabdomyosarcoma
The upper size limit of a normal vaginal cuff is
2.1 cm
Nodular areas in vaginal cuff may be due to
postirradiation fibrosis
___________ is the most posteriror and inferior reflection of the peritoneal cavity
The Rectouterine Recess, or Pouch of Douglas
Pathologic fluid collections may be associated with ascites, or blood resulting from what 3 possibilities?
ectopic pregnancy, hemorrahagic cyst, and pus from infection
Cervix lies _________ to bladder between lower uterine segment and vaginal canal
posterior
Cervical canal extends from ________, where it joins the uterine cavity, to the _______, which projects into the vaginal vault.
internal os, external os
Cylindrical portion of the uterus which enters vagina measures ______ in length
2-4 cm
Benign cysts in the cervix, usually asymptomatic
Nabothian cysts
Cervical polyps are benign condition which arises from hyperplastic protrusion of the epithelium of _______ or ________
endocervix, ectocervix
Polyps may be ________, projecting out of cervix, or _________.
pedunculated, broad-based
Leiomyomas are also known as _________.
fibroids
___________ is an aquired condition which results in obstruction of the cervical canal.
cervical stenosis
What is the most common type of cervical cancer?
squamous cell carcinoma
_________ or ________ scanning uses a 5-7.5 MHz sector or curvilinear transducer which is covered with a probe and applied to vestibule of vagina
translabial or transperineal
Pathology of the uterus may mimic a ________ on physical exam
mass
Normal lie of uterus is usually ________ and ________.
anteverted, anteflexed
A(n) _________ uterus may be caused by pregnancy, postpartum, leiomyoma, adenomyosis, bicornuate or didelphic uterus
enlarged
A uterine tumor may be caused by _________ or ________
leiomyoma, carcinoma
Early intrauterine pregnancy, endometrial hyperplasia, incomplete abortion, trophoblastic disease, endometritis, adhesions, polyps, inflammatory disease, or endometrial carcinoma may cause ________.
thickened endometrium
Endometritis, retained products of conception, pelvic inflammatory disease, or cervical obstruction may cause _________.
endometrial fluid
Gas (abscess), IUD, calcified myomas or vessels, or retained products of conception may cause ________.
endometrial shadowing
________ are the most common gynecologic tumors, occuring in approximately 20-30% of women over 30 years old.
Leiomyomas
________ tumors are composed of spindle-shaped, smooth muscle celss arranged in whorl-like pattern.
myoma
Leiomyomas are the most comon ________, fibrosis occurs after atrophic or degenerative changes, degenerations occurs when myomas outgrow their _________
pelvic tumor, blood supply
Fibroid's location is a disruption into endometrial cavity
submucosal
Fibroid's location is within myometrium
intramural
Fibroid arises from myometrium and projects outside uterus
subserosal
Myomas are dependent on _________
estrogen
Rapid increase in myoma size, especially in postmenopausal women is suspicious for _________
neoplasm
Clinically myomas cause uterine _________ and _________ with a sensation of pelvic pressure and sometimes pain.
irregularity, enlargement
Myomas can become ________ and appear as extrauterine masses
pedunculated
________ myomas may erode into endometrial cavity and cause irregular or heavy bleeding, which may lead to anemia
submucosal
Women with _________ have several options to stop the bleeding such as hormonal suppression, endometrial ablation, UAE, HIFU.
menorrhagia
Myomas are most common cause of uterine calcifications, but the less common cause is __________ in periphery of uterus
arcuate artery calcification
Uterine calcifications can indicate underlying disease such as _______, _________, or _________
diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic renal failure
Calcifications have been termed "__________" and appear in arteries throughout the body
Monckeberges' arteriosclerosis
Focal adenomyosis is also referred to as _________.
adenomyoma
Adenomyosis has been described as having _________ or ________ pattern
swiss cheese, honeycomb
__________ consist of vascular plexus of arteries and veins without intervening capillary networks
Uterine arteriovenous malformations
AVM's are congenital and teratogenic and the diagnosis is critical because dilation and curettage may lead to catastrophic _________.
hemorrhaging
Sonographically, AVM's are ___________, anechoic structures seen within the pelvis which may be florid-colored, mosaic pattern
serpiginous
___________ are benign - bulky enlarged uterus without focal mass
adenomyosis
Women with adenomyosis may experience _______, ________, and ________
hypermenorrhea, menorrhagia, metrorrhea
Uterine _________ are rare, solid tumor arising from myometrium or endometrium and have rapid growth and may resemble myomas
leiomyosarcomas
__________ is a very rare condition in children characterized by grapelike clusters of tumor mass
sarcoma botryoide
The _________ is a landmark for identification of long axis of uterus
endometrial canal
Calipers should be placed at maximum _________ to __________ diameter of outer borders
anterior, posterior
Many endometrial pathologies, such as hyperplasia, polyps and carcinoma, can cause abnormal bleeding, especially in ________ patient.
postmenopausal
____________ is a partial estrogen receptor antagonist used in postmenopausal women with history of breast cancer
tamoxifen
__________ is valuable for further evaluating abnomally thickened endometrium
sonohysterography
In premenopausal women, __________ is performed in mid-menstrual cycle, usually bw days 6 and 10.
sonohysterography
________ antibiotics are given to women with chronic pelvic inflammatory disease and the women with history of mitral valve prolapse
prophylactic
___________ may have abnormal thickening of endometrium, may be a precursor of endometrial cancer
endometrial hyperplasia
Endometrial measurement, i.e., ________ without bleeding, and i.e., _______ mm with bleeding
> 5-8 mm ; < 5-8
portion of the canal of the uterine cervix that is lined with squamous epithelium
ectocervix
Small cyst within the vagina
Gartner's duct cyst
Benign invasive growth of the endometrium that may cause heavy, painful menstrual bleeding
adenomyosis
Most comon type of leimyoma which deforms the myometrium
intramural leimyoma
irregular acyclic bleeding
metrorrhea
benign condition that results from estrogen stimulation to the endometrium without the influence of progestin
endometrial hyperplasia
the ectopic occurence of nests of endometrial tissue within the myometrium is ________
adenomyosis
The most common cause of abnormal uterine bleeding in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women is
endometrial hyperplasia
intrauterine synechiae is often referred to as _______
Asherman's syndrome
The earliest stage associated with endometrial carcinoma is a ____________
thickened endometrium