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Pathology of Uterus (HA Chap 41)
questions derived from chapter 41 of the Hagen-Ansert DMS Textbook
The vagina runs ______ and _____ from cervix, between bladder and rectum.
anterior and caudal
Most common congenital abnormality of the female genital tract is _________ resulting in obstruction.
Accumulation of fluid in uterus
Accumulation of blood in uterus
Accumulation of pus in uterus
Vaginal tumors are rare, but the ones found are usually ________ or __________
adenocarcinoma or rhabdomyosarcoma
The upper size limit of a normal vaginal cuff is
Nodular areas in vaginal cuff may be due to
___________ is the most posteriror and inferior reflection of the peritoneal cavity
The Rectouterine Recess, or Pouch of Douglas
Pathologic fluid collections may be associated with ascites, or blood resulting from what 3 possibilities?
ectopic pregnancy, hemorrahagic cyst, and pus from infection
Cervix lies _________ to bladder between lower uterine segment and vaginal canal
Cervical canal extends from ________, where it joins the uterine cavity, to the _______, which projects into the vaginal vault.
internal os, external os
Cylindrical portion of the uterus which enters vagina measures ______ in length
Benign cysts in the cervix, usually asymptomatic
Cervical polyps are benign condition which arises from hyperplastic protrusion of the epithelium of _______ or ________
Polyps may be ________, projecting out of cervix, or _________.
Leiomyomas are also known as _________.
___________ is an aquired condition which results in obstruction of the cervical canal.
What is the most common type of cervical cancer?
squamous cell carcinoma
_________ or ________ scanning uses a 5-7.5 MHz sector or curvilinear transducer which is covered with a probe and applied to vestibule of vagina
translabial or transperineal
Pathology of the uterus may mimic a ________ on physical exam
Normal lie of uterus is usually ________ and ________.
A(n) _________ uterus may be caused by pregnancy, postpartum, leiomyoma, adenomyosis, bicornuate or didelphic uterus
A uterine tumor may be caused by _________ or ________
Early intrauterine pregnancy, endometrial hyperplasia, incomplete abortion, trophoblastic disease, endometritis, adhesions, polyps, inflammatory disease, or endometrial carcinoma may cause ________.
Endometritis, retained products of conception, pelvic inflammatory disease, or cervical obstruction may cause _________.
Gas (abscess), IUD, calcified myomas or vessels, or retained products of conception may cause ________.
________ are the most common gynecologic tumors, occuring in approximately 20-30% of women over 30 years old.
________ tumors are composed of spindle-shaped, smooth muscle celss arranged in whorl-like pattern.
Leiomyomas are the most comon ________, fibrosis occurs after atrophic or degenerative changes, degenerations occurs when myomas outgrow their _________
pelvic tumor, blood supply
Fibroid's location is a disruption into endometrial cavity
Fibroid's location is within myometrium
Fibroid arises from myometrium and projects outside uterus
Myomas are dependent on _________
Rapid increase in myoma size, especially in postmenopausal women is suspicious for _________
Clinically myomas cause uterine _________ and _________ with a sensation of pelvic pressure and sometimes pain.
Myomas can become ________ and appear as extrauterine masses
________ myomas may erode into endometrial cavity and cause irregular or heavy bleeding, which may lead to anemia
Women with _________ have several options to stop the bleeding such as hormonal suppression, endometrial ablation, UAE, HIFU.
Myomas are most common cause of uterine calcifications, but the less common cause is __________ in periphery of uterus
arcuate artery calcification
Uterine calcifications can indicate underlying disease such as _______, _________, or _________
diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic renal failure
Calcifications have been termed "__________" and appear in arteries throughout the body
Focal adenomyosis is also referred to as _________.
Adenomyosis has been described as having _________ or ________ pattern
swiss cheese, honeycomb
__________ consist of vascular plexus of arteries and veins without intervening capillary networks
Uterine arteriovenous malformations
AVM's are congenital and teratogenic and the diagnosis is critical because dilation and curettage may lead to catastrophic _________.
Sonographically, AVM's are ___________, anechoic structures seen within the pelvis which may be florid-colored, mosaic pattern
___________ are benign - bulky enlarged uterus without focal mass
Women with adenomyosis may experience _______, ________, and ________
hypermenorrhea, menorrhagia, metrorrhea
Uterine _________ are rare, solid tumor arising from myometrium or endometrium and have rapid growth and may resemble myomas
__________ is a very rare condition in children characterized by grapelike clusters of tumor mass
The _________ is a landmark for identification of long axis of uterus
Calipers should be placed at maximum _________ to __________ diameter of outer borders
Many endometrial pathologies, such as hyperplasia, polyps and carcinoma, can cause abnormal bleeding, especially in ________ patient.
____________ is a partial estrogen receptor antagonist used in postmenopausal women with history of breast cancer
__________ is valuable for further evaluating abnomally thickened endometrium
In premenopausal women, __________ is performed in mid-menstrual cycle, usually bw days 6 and 10.
________ antibiotics are given to women with chronic pelvic inflammatory disease and the women with history of mitral valve prolapse
___________ may have abnormal thickening of endometrium, may be a precursor of endometrial cancer
Endometrial measurement, i.e., ________ without bleeding, and i.e., _______ mm with bleeding
> 5-8 mm ; < 5-8
portion of the canal of the uterine cervix that is lined with squamous epithelium
Small cyst within the vagina
Gartner's duct cyst
Benign invasive growth of the endometrium that may cause heavy, painful menstrual bleeding
Most comon type of leimyoma which deforms the myometrium
irregular acyclic bleeding
benign condition that results from estrogen stimulation to the endometrium without the influence of progestin
the ectopic occurence of nests of endometrial tissue within the myometrium is ________
The most common cause of abnormal uterine bleeding in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women is
intrauterine synechiae is often referred to as _______
The earliest stage associated with endometrial carcinoma is a ____________