Most common congenital abnormality of the female genital tract is _________ resulting in obstruction.
Vaginal tumors are rare, but the ones found are usually ________ or __________
adenocarcinoma or rhabdomyosarcoma
___________ is the most posteriror and inferior reflection of the peritoneal cavity
The Rectouterine Recess, or Pouch of Douglas
Pathologic fluid collections may be associated with ascites, or blood resulting from what 3 possibilities?
ectopic pregnancy, hemorrahagic cyst, and pus from infection
Cervical canal extends from ________, where it joins the uterine cavity, to the _______, which projects into the vaginal vault.
internal os, external os
Cervical polyps are benign condition which arises from hyperplastic protrusion of the epithelium of _______ or ________
___________ is an aquired condition which results in obstruction of the cervical canal.
_________ or ________ scanning uses a 5-7.5 MHz sector or curvilinear transducer which is covered with a probe and applied to vestibule of vagina
translabial or transperineal
A(n) _________ uterus may be caused by pregnancy, postpartum, leiomyoma, adenomyosis, bicornuate or didelphic uterus
Early intrauterine pregnancy, endometrial hyperplasia, incomplete abortion, trophoblastic disease, endometritis, adhesions, polyps, inflammatory disease, or endometrial carcinoma may cause ________.
Endometritis, retained products of conception, pelvic inflammatory disease, or cervical obstruction may cause _________.
Gas (abscess), IUD, calcified myomas or vessels, or retained products of conception may cause ________.
________ are the most common gynecologic tumors, occuring in approximately 20-30% of women over 30 years old.
________ tumors are composed of spindle-shaped, smooth muscle celss arranged in whorl-like pattern.
Leiomyomas are the most comon ________, fibrosis occurs after atrophic or degenerative changes, degenerations occurs when myomas outgrow their _________
pelvic tumor, blood supply
Rapid increase in myoma size, especially in postmenopausal women is suspicious for _________
Clinically myomas cause uterine _________ and _________ with a sensation of pelvic pressure and sometimes pain.
________ myomas may erode into endometrial cavity and cause irregular or heavy bleeding, which may lead to anemia
Women with _________ have several options to stop the bleeding such as hormonal suppression, endometrial ablation, UAE, HIFU.
Myomas are most common cause of uterine calcifications, but the less common cause is __________ in periphery of uterus
arcuate artery calcification
Uterine calcifications can indicate underlying disease such as _______, _________, or _________
diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic renal failure
Calcifications have been termed "__________" and appear in arteries throughout the body
__________ consist of vascular plexus of arteries and veins without intervening capillary networks
Uterine arteriovenous malformations
AVM's are congenital and teratogenic and the diagnosis is critical because dilation and curettage may lead to catastrophic _________.
Sonographically, AVM's are ___________, anechoic structures seen within the pelvis which may be florid-colored, mosaic pattern
Women with adenomyosis may experience _______, ________, and ________
hypermenorrhea, menorrhagia, metrorrhea
Uterine _________ are rare, solid tumor arising from myometrium or endometrium and have rapid growth and may resemble myomas
__________ is a very rare condition in children characterized by grapelike clusters of tumor mass
Calipers should be placed at maximum _________ to __________ diameter of outer borders
Many endometrial pathologies, such as hyperplasia, polyps and carcinoma, can cause abnormal bleeding, especially in ________ patient.
____________ is a partial estrogen receptor antagonist used in postmenopausal women with history of breast cancer
In premenopausal women, __________ is performed in mid-menstrual cycle, usually bw days 6 and 10.
________ antibiotics are given to women with chronic pelvic inflammatory disease and the women with history of mitral valve prolapse
___________ may have abnormal thickening of endometrium, may be a precursor of endometrial cancer
Endometrial measurement, i.e., ________ without bleeding, and i.e., _______ mm with bleeding
> 5-8 mm ; < 5-8
Benign invasive growth of the endometrium that may cause heavy, painful menstrual bleeding
benign condition that results from estrogen stimulation to the endometrium without the influence of progestin
The most common cause of abnormal uterine bleeding in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women is