A process when you see a misspelled word but you still understand the meaning of the word
Process of taking a creation and turning it into something that has significant value or is profitable
Organization identifies a complex problem, problem is divided into parts. Four possible solutions.
Process in problem identification with idealized situation, comparing real situation to ideal situation
Squeeze and stretch method:
Stretch: An attempt to discover the scope of problem
Squeeze: Find its basic components
Technique which attacks problem by listing various characteristics then thinking of ways to improve each characteristic
When actual and expected effects are compared results that need to be noted are those that deviate from what is expected
When developing a written or oral presentation, presentation should be brief, short, and to the point
The 8 S's of Innovation:
Strategy and purposes required to have objectives
Structure uses alliances to obtain innovation
System and processes is reward system for creativity and innovation
Style encourages risk taking
Staff has innovation champions
Resources invests heavily but appropriately
Shared values possesses a shared value
Creative problem solving process:
Evaluation and Choice
Creative problem solving plan:
Decision making phase
Idea spurring questions:
Two other uses?
involves calling into question the assumptions underlying our customary, habitual ways of thinking and acting and then being ready to think and act differently on the basis of the critical questioning.
Components of Critical Thinking
Identifying and challenging assumptions.
Recognizing the importance of context.
Imagining and exploring alternatives.
Developing reflective skepticism.
Consider rejecting standardized formats for problem solving.
Have an interest in a wide range of related and divergent fields.
Take multiple perspectives on a problem.
Use trial-and-error methods in their experimentation.
Have a future orientation.
Have self-confidence and trust in their own judgment.
Critical Thinking Involves
Recognizing underlying assumptions.
Judging the rationality of these justifications by comparing them to a range of varying interpretations and prospective.
Providing positive as well as negative appraisal.
_____ is the process of generating something new, something original that has value to an individual, a group, an organization , an industry, or a society.
People who are consistently turning out creative ideas are sometimes referred to as _______.
________ is the process of taking a creation and turning it into something that has significant value to an individual, a group, an organization, an industry, or a society.
What is the process of taking an invention (a creation) and making it profitable through successful application?
What is the innovation equation?
Creativity occurring in an Innovative Organizational Context within a Supportive Societal Environment results in Innovation. C (X) IOC (X) SSE = 1
How many types of creativity are there? What are they?
Two primary types, individual and group/team creativity
What is the Creative Problem Solving process model?
analyzing the environment
recognizing a problem
identifying the problem
choosing among alternatives
implementing the choices
controlling the results
What are the primary areas involved in achieving innovative organizational context?
strategies and purposes
system and processes
resources available and their allocation
True or False: Never make assumptions about the condition of future factors in the problem situation.
What does divergent thinking mean?
expanding the picture of the problem, looking at it from various points of view, gathering information, generating options for solving it.
What is the IDEO creativity process?
Observation (information gathering)
Rapid Prototyping (mockups of solutions are created)
Refining (Brainstorming is narrowed down)
Implementation (actual product or service is created)
Analyzing the Environment
1) Comparison against others: Listening to employees and customers, racing against phantom competitors.
What are some techniques for making assumptions?
1) Assumption Reversal - listing all assumptions about the problem, then reversing them and trying to solve the problem. You're trying to recognize limitations of the solutions you come up with.
Analyzing the Environment
1-Hire futurists and other consultants
2-Monitor weak signals
Recognizing the Problem
2-Inverse Brainstorming (takes a solution and looks for possible problems)
5-Responding to someone else
8-Workouts and other group approaches
9-camelot (a perfect world)
Identifying the Problem
1-Consensus Building (voting in a democratic manner)
2-Draw a picture of the problem
3-Experience Kit (putting problem solvers through an experience that causes them to understand the problem better)
4-Fishbone/Ishikawa Diagram - exercise that lists all possible causes of the problem at hand
5-King of the Mountain - one or two individuals take a position on what the problem is, and other members try to come up with a better on.
6-Redefining a problem or opportunity
7-Rewrite Objectives in Different Ways
8-Squeeze and Stretch
9-What do you know?
10-What patterns exist?
11-The why-why diagram (identifies the causes of a problem in a systematic way)
1-Analogies and Metaphors - helps one identify problems and understand them better.
2-Analysis of Past Solutions, and learning from failures.
3-Association - making a mental connection between two objects or ideas. They must be related in some manner.
4-Free Association - just getting as many ideas as possible on the white board. You're looking for thoughts
5-Attribute Association Chains - technique begins with a list of the attributes of a problem. You free associate on each attribute to generate ideas about the problem.
6-Attribute Listing - consists of listing all the attributes or qualities of a problem, object. Then, they systematically analyzes each attribute or group.
7-Back to the Customers - turns our attention from production problems to marketing problems.
8-Back to the Sun - for each elements you can trace a process back to natural resources and ultimately the sun.
9-Circle of Opportunity - randomly selecting problem attributes and combining them to create a topic for a brainstorming session.
10=Computer Program - no other meaning here. It just means using software programs.
11-Deadlines - some people claim they work better under pressure.
12-Direct Analogies - knowledge/facts/technology from one field is applied to another.
13-Establish Idea sources - such as magazines
14-Examine it with the senses (using hearing, sight, touch, smell, taste)
The FCB Grid - Four cell matrix
15-The Focused - Object Technique: contains elements of both free associations and forced relationships.
16-Fresh Eye - bringing in someone from the outside who doesn't know anything about the problem.
17-Googlestorming - using search engine to help spread your thinking.
Idea Bits and Racking - Taking idea bits ( or ideas generated in individual or group session) and using a specially designed racking board.
18-Input-Output : Helps identify new wars to accomplish an objective.
20-Music - listening to music
21-Name Possible Uses, provides solutions to a whole array of problems
22-The Napoleon Technique - assuming that you are someone famous, might help you
What are the three forms of applied thinking that we all need?
decision making, problem solving and creative thinking
What is the different between problem solving and creative thinking?
Object of problem solving is usually a solution, answer, or conclusion. Outcome of creative thinking is new ideas.
What are the two aspects of the mind?
Information it can store in memory, and what it can do. Professional knowledge includes both.
True of False: If you do not exercise your mind throughout your life your brain will shrink at a faster rate.
What are the three forms of applied effective thinking?
decision making, problem solving, creative or innovative thinking
Analyzing is closely related to...
logical or step-by-step reasoning by breaking down individual parts (reverse of synthesizing)
process of inferring or verifying a general law or principle from the observation of particular instances - core of the "scientific method"
any form of reasoning in which the conclusion, though supported by the premises, does not follow from them necessarily.
What does "holistic dimension" mean?
The ability of the minds to think in terms of wholes. (as well as analytically, taking the wholes into bits)
What are the elements of "valuing"?
Object element (outside yourself) and subjective one. We can all judge and evaluate objective things, but what we actually value, "our values and morals" depends on our environment and culture, thus making it subjective
What is the Depth of Mind Principle?
The principle that allows us to analyze, synthesize and value in our sleep, or when we are doing something quite different. Depth of Mind principle is also the source of intuition - that sixth sense.
According to Adair, what are the five steps of effective decision making?
1) Define the objective
2) Collect relevant information
3)Generate feasible options
4) Make the decision
5) Implement and evaluation
Discuss Step 2 of 5 Steps of Effective Decision Making.
Collect the information that will help you make your decision, being careful not to confuse "available and relevant" information
What is the Information Overload Syndrome?
(self explanatory) Where managers are overwhelmed by the massive availability of information.
Discuss Step 3 of 5 Steps of Effective Decision Making
Generate three or four possibilities instead of mere alternatives.
What is the lobster pot model? Which step of the effective decision making model does it pertain to?
pg 29, narrowing down choice options, using the principle that it is easier to falsify something than to verify it; step 3
What are four things you should consider to help you make a decision in a complex case?
listing advantages/disadvantages, examining the consequences of each course, testing the proposed course against the yardstick of your aim or objective, weighing the risks against the expected gains.
What are the two forms of consequence?
manifest consequences- you foresee when you make your decision; latent consequences - not nearly as probable to foresee (may trigger more problems)
What is the difference between a bad and a wrong decision?
Wrong decision - fault lies within the method. Bad - something was deliberately ignored
What is the difference between outcome and process?
Outcomes cannot always be controlled, but the process can. Knowing how to avoid "bad mistakes" in the process can lead to better outcomes.
Discuss Step 5 of 5 in Effective Decision Making method
Implementation includes monitoring consequences and sensing effects to aid in the next problem solving process you encounter
What is "the point of no return"?
point where it costs you more in various coinages to turn back and change your mind than to continue with an imperfect decision.
When is implementation part of the decision making process rather than the end of it?
Your valuing faculty will come into play to evaluate the decision, the data informs the Depth mind, and it constitutes experience.
What are the three elements/variables involving leadership?
The leader - quality of personality or character; the situation - partly constant, partly varying; the group - the followers, their needs and values.
What is a group personality?
When people come together, their individual personalities merge into one. Each group has a different group personality. One technique may work for one group, another may work for a different group.
What is task need?
work groups and organizations come together because there is a task to be done that is too big for one person.
What are individual needs?
physical (food and shelter, provided by wages)/psychological needs (recognition,sense of doing something worthwhile, status)
Leadership is essentially an _______ activity, opposed to a _______ one.
What is action-centered leadership?
A method where the leader (of no more than five) completes the role of achieving the task, building and maintaining the team, and developing the individual by completing the function of:
1) Defining the task
8) Providing an example
In action-centered leadership, what is the difference between an effective team member and an effective team leader?
Both are responsible for all three roles, but the leader has more of a role than a commitment to meeting the common needs
What is the planning continuum?
A display that has axes of "area of freedom for team members" and "use of authority by the leader", showing an inverse relationship
How should a leader know where to act on the planning continuum?
Consider 1) Time available to plan and 2) competence level of the team members. The best leaders are consistent.
How does a problem differ from decision?
Problem is "something thrown in front of you", all of the components to the solution is already there. Decision - usually does mean that life will be different. opens the way to changes. Decision making always taking priority.
What is unified model/bridge model for decision making and problem solving?
"defining the aim/problem" - mainly analyzing
"generating feasible options" - mainly synthesizing
"choosing the optimum course/solution" - mainly valuing
When should you ask questions? (give 1 or 2 examples of each)
When understanding the problem,
Towards solving the problem evaluating the decision and implementing it
Every time you are involved in making decisions or solving problems, what three levels of competence should you develop?
Awareness (of problem or need for decision), Understanding (where you and the team are in relation to the problem), Skill (asking the right questions of right people at right time)
What is a system problem?
A deviation from the norm. There is a problem cause, and actual performance deviates from performance standard. The different is the "problem deviation" (pg 63, visual)
What is the best-known and most widely used creative thinking technique? When was it introduced?
brainstorming; 1930s. It works better in a team setting.
What are the guidelines for brainstorming?
suspend judgement, welcome-free wheeling, strive for quantity, combine and improve, do not edit.
What is one major reason why brainstorming is useful?
It frees us from "functional fixedness", the mind is released to consider other possibilities.
How do you run a brainstorming session?
1)Define the problem
2) Help people understand the problem by highlighting the background information and history
3) clarify the aim in a succinct sentence
4) have a brief warm-up session, using a common problem or object
5) Brainstorm, write ideas on a flipchart. Allow time for silent reflection, discourage criticism and encourage cross-fertilization
6) Establish criteria for selecting feasible ideas, choose the best
7) Reverse brainstorm - "in how many ways can this idea fail?"
List the steps of the creative thinking process
1-Preparation - collecting all relevant information
2-Incubation - Depth Mind phase. Mental work (analyzing, synthesizing, valuing) continues on the problem in your subconscious mind.
3-Insight - "Eureka" moment, usually occurs when you are in a relaxed frame of mind
4-Validation - valuing faculty comes into play, the new idea must be thoroughly tested
List the five reasons for mental roadblocks
Lack of facts, lack of conviction, lack of a starting point, lack of perspective, lack of motivation
What are three key factors in choosing your field of work?
1) What are your interests?
2)What are your aptitudes?
3) What are the relevant factors in your temperament?
Result of creation/innovation process. Can be a service, physical product, enhancement to something, process for increasing productivity. Must be of value.
Personal and group creativity
Managing group dynamics and socialization within groups. Increasing use of right brain for intuition and elimination restrictions to creativity.
4 types of innovation
1. Product- new product or services
2. Process- operations, finance, or human resources
3. Marketing- promotion, pricing, distribution, packaging
4. Management- improving way organization is managed
Creative Problem Solving Process (CPS)
1. Analyze environment
2. Problem recognition
3. Problem identification
4. Making assumptions
5. Generating alternatives
6. Evaluation and Choice
4 stages of CPS
1. Problem identificaton
2. Making assumptions about future
3. generation of alternatives
4. choice of alternatives
figure of speech where 2 different universes of thought are linked by some point of similarity
mental comparison between 2 ideas or objects including contiguity, similarity, and contrast
Referred to as Ishikawa diagram by professor of university of Tokyo. Develop all possible causes of problem at hand. Primarily used with groups. Information visually arranged in a diagram that resembles skeleton of a fish. Problem written on R side of paper. Straight line extending across paper to the left. Draw stems at 45 dgree angle to backbone line. Each stem is list of causes, branches off each stem are breakdowns of each cause. List causes from least complicated nearest head of fish and most complicated at the tail. Usually reviewed over more than 1 session.
Benefits of fishbone diagram
1. study all parts of problem
2. shows relationships between causes and their relative importances
3. starts creative process by focusing participants on the problem
4. starts a logical sequence for solving problem
5. reduces scope of problem and way to solve less complex isssues
6. keep focus on problem rather than tangents.
Diagram moves from L to R. Traditional decision tree.
For example, problem is "new product sales are poor". 5 causes: poor product design, ineffective distribution, too high a price, and failure to identify target market. Causes of each subproblem can be identified by asking why again.
Benefits of why-why
1. helps problem solvers explore many more possible causes rather than focusing on a narrow possible cause
2. leads to a more thorough analysis than fishbone
3. more rational layout of problems along traditional lines
back to the customer
listing five marketing mix factors related to problem:
5. target market
back to the sun
means to systematically reduce something to it's fundamental properties to come up with ideas or attributes that might be changed:
Strings: plactic tips, woven fabric, coloring, fiber, woven fiber, spun fiber, drawn fiber, plastic, petroleum, chemicals, fossil deposits
circle of opportunties
Randomly selecting problem attributes and combining them to create a topic for a brainstorming session. Time consuming, but good for generating ideas. A circle is numbered like a clock, attributes are listed around the circle. Throw a dice to determine the 1st attribute to address. Make combinations of attributes by rolling the dice or choosing combinations
Example: Fisher Idea Systems. These programs help with generating new ideas, helping structure problem solving process, and asking new questions.
Increase pressure to generate alternatives and inspire creative work. Stimulates more R brain activity.
applies a known example to a new system or process. For example: pringles were developed by analyzing how leaves are pressed & dried to require less space for storing and shipping.
Use for analogies, problem solvers spend time creating fantasies based on the word or words chosen. Words that are colorful and have a lot of visual appeal should be used.
establish idea sources
Finding magazines or other resources to generate ideas. Example: sci fi books, movies, catalogs, encyclopedia, seminars, museums, art galleries, amusement parks
Developed by Richard Vaughn. 4 cell matrix used to describe management and marketing concepts. Examples of terms used along axis: high and low involvement (describes pricing) on other axis think and feel (describes consumer involvment). Example found on-line placed items like perfume, automobiles, life insurance, clothes pins on the grid in 4 quadrants.
Tony Buzan. Working out fram a core idea suits the brain' thinking patterns better. Individual brainstorming process. Write the name or description of object and draw a circle around it. Draw a line out from the circle for each major facet of the problem. Drawing lines outward are like roads leaving a city. You can draw branches from the roads. Look for interrelationships and terms appearing more than once. You can add visual techniques like different colors for different lines, circle words appearing more than once, connecting lines between similar thoughts.