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I&FD Ch. 4

STUDY
PLAY
Nature vs. Nurture
the ongoing debate between those people who feel the influences of aging determined by nature or by nurture
sex
biological traits that distinguish males from females, such as the internal and external reproductive anatomy, chromosomes, hormone, and other physiological characteristics.
gender
encompasses characteristics such as gender role, gender identity, gender presentation, and gender stereotypes.
XX sex chromosome
this chromosome combination results in a "female" genetic blueprint for the developing embryo
XY sex chromosome
this chromosome combination results in a "male" genetic blueprint for the developing embryo
androgens
testes produce androgens (testosterone), the masculinizing sex hormones
sex hormones
estrogen and testosterone, which influence the masculinizing or feminizing process in development
testosterone
the masculinizing hormone produced by the testicles
estrogen
the feminizing hormone
intersex, intersexual
refers to when a child's genitalia are ambiguous or indistinguishable
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS)
a disorder characterized by an abnormality on the X sex chromosome, typically passed down form the mother; this results in prenatal development that differentiates as if no androgen at all was present
Turner's Syndrome
occurs when one of the X sex chromosomes is completely or partially absent. affecting only female infants, who are sometimes referred to as XO babies (meaning an X and a zero, or no other chromosome). the individual does not develop ovaries and is consequently sterile
Klinefelter's Syndrome
a genetic disorder in which an extra X chromosome is present, resulting in an XXY chromosomal pattern. this disorder is considered to be one of the most common of all genetic abnormalities. while the internal reproductive organs and external genitalia develop normally, a male affected by it will have smaller-than-normal testes and will not produce sperm
gender role
the explicitly expressed and implicitly implied behaviors, feelings, atributes, and traits that society expects of the male or the female
gender identity
our intuitive sense of our maleness or our femaleness; our internal feelings of what it is to be a man or a woman
gender presentation
the way in which an individual presents his or her gender identity through personality, habits, and behaviors
gender stereotypes
long-held assumptions or labels about male and female capabilities and limitations
gender attribution
the process by which we encounter someone and reach an opinion of what his or her gender is
gender socialization
the specific messages and practices we receive from our culture concerning the nature of being a male or a female, of being feminine or masculine
masculinity
a socially/culturally constructed set of beliefs, values, and opinions that shape manly character, or manliness
hegemonic masculinity
each culture's ideal, dominant standard of masculinity to which men are to aim
cool pose
a version of masculinity within black culture that "presents a powerful face to the world" while also entailing the expected cooperative behaviors of black culture
machismo
the attitude, common in Latin American cultures, that men are superior to women, and that men are socially and physically dominating
Masculine Gender Role Stress theory (MGRS)
this theory maintains that there are stressors that may result from a man's fear that he is not measuring up to or meeting societal expectations for masculinity
femininity
the qualities, behaviors, and attitudes that are deemed by a particular culture to be ideally appropriate for girls and women; most often associated with nurturing and life-giving attributes such as kindness, gentleness, and patience
marianismo
the belief among Latin American cultures that women are semi-divine and are morally superior to and spiritually stronger than men
gender polarization, bipolar gender
a model in which cultural viewpoints almost always emphasize the differences between men and women
gender inequality
the obvious or hidden disparities or discrimination in opportunities or advancements among individuals, based solely on a person's gender
sexism
a prejudice or discrimination based on biological sex; a belief system that assumes a hierarchy of human worth based on the social construction of the differences between the sexes; an ideology of male supremacy, superiority, authority, and beliefs/behaviors that support and sustain this ideology
glass ceiling
refers to discrimination against women in the workplace, specifically in situations where advancement in an organization is stopped because of occupational sexism
wage gap
the inequality between men's and women's wages in the U.S.
confidence gap
the phenomenon in which men and women haver different confidence levels in their academic abilities-men tend to have more confidence in their academic abilities than women
gender schemas
the way in which we internalize and incorporate specific gendered behaviors and expectations
instrumental schemas
patterns associated with masculinity and focus on task-oriented behaviors and "getting the job done."
expressive schemas
patterns of behavior associated with femininity; having an interpersonal or relational orientation
androgyny
without assigned gender value; when a person possesses traits, behaviors, or characteristics typically associated with the opposite gender
androgynous
in androgynous cultures, there are no rigid gender roles guiding men and women's behaviors
sexual orientation
the focus of a person's erotic desires or fantasies, or a person's affectionate or romantic feelings toward a particular gender
sexual preference
the term used by people who believe that sexuality is fluid and is more a matter of choice than of biology
transgender
refers to people who feel that their biologically assigned gender is a false or incomplete description of themselves
transsexual
a person whose sexual identity is opposite to assignment at birth
sex reassignment surgery (SRS)
the surgical alteration to the body that transforms a person's gender from male to female, or female to male
transvestite
a peson who dresses and acts as a person of the opposite gender from the one with which he or she was born
Learning theory
the theory that traits and behaviors are not inborn, but learned
Social Learning theory (SLT)
albert bandura's theory that children acquire behaviors and personality traits by observing others. an offshoot of the traditional behaviorism theory, this theory addresses the roles of reward and punishment and it goes a step further to include an individual's realm of cognition-the role of observation-in the process of learning
Cognitive Development theory
this theory holds that before social and environmental forces can influences a child's concept of gender, the child must first gain a certain awareness of understanding about gender
gender stability
between the ages of 4&6, children reach the realization that their gender will always be the same-that they were a boy or a girl as a baby and will be a boy or a girl when they grow up
gender constancy
between kindergarten and about second grade, children understand that acting like a girl if you are a boy doesn't make you a girl, and acting like a boy if you are a girl doesn't make you a boy. children realize that sex is a permanent attribute
homosocial play
children's preference for same-sex playmates; occurs from age 3 to age 11 or 12
sexual harassment
any unwelcome sexual or physical conduct by a person of either gender, directed to a person of either gender