Texas PPR Exam (TX Teachers Review)
Terms in this set (124)
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
developed a theory of how cognition develops and changes over time. He proposed that a child's intellect progresses through four stages: 1. Sensorimotor (birth to 2 years) 2. Preoperational (2 to 7 years) 3. Concrete operational (7 to 11 years) 4. Formal operational (11 years to adulthood) Children learn through active interaction and manipulation of the environment. The stage the child is in determines how they see the world. He believed all students pass through the stages in order and cannot skip any stage.
Mental patterns that guide behavior; cognitive structures that help children process and organize information to make sense of the environment
Understanding new experiences in terms of existing schemes
Modifying existing schemes to fit new situations in the environment. When old ways of dealing with the environment don't work, a child modifies an existing scheme stimulated by new information or a new experience
The process of adjusting schemes in response to the environment through assimilation or accommodation. According to Piaget, this is how learning occurs.
The process of restoring balance between present understanding and new experiences. According to Piaget, learning depends on this process so it is important for teachers to confront students with new experiences or data to advance their cognitive development.
An imbalance between what a child understands and what the child encounters through new experiences.
In this stage of cognitive development, infants learn about the environment by using their senses and motor skills. Children develop "object permanence" and progress from reflexive behavior to goal-directed behavior.
The fact that objects are physically stable and exist even when the objects are not in the child's physical presence. This enables the child to start using symbols to represent things in their minds so they can think about them.
In this stage of cognitive development, children learn to represent things in their mind. During this stage students develop the ability to use symbols to represent objects in the world. Thinking remains egocentric and centered.
Believing that everyone sees the world as you do.
The concept that certain properties of an object remain the same regardless of changes in other properties.
Paying attention to only one aspect of an object or situation; what is commonly called tunnel vision.
The ability to perform a mental operation and then reverse thinking to return to the starting point.
The ability to think simultaneously about a whole class of objects and about relationships among subordinate classes; a framework for thinking.
Concrete Operational Stage
In this stage of cognitive development, children develop the capacity for logical reasoning and understanding of conservation but can use the skills only in dealing with familiar situations. New abilities include operations that are reversible. Thinking is decentered, allowing them to understand that others may have different perceptions, and problem solving is less restricted by egocentrism. Abstract thinking is not possible.
The ability to understand stimuli in the context of relevant information. Preschoolers see what they see with little ability to infer the meaning behind what they see. Students in the concrete operational stage respond to inferred reality and see things in the context of other meanings.
Arranging objects in sequential order according to one aspect, such as size, weight, volume, etc. This involves arranging things in a logical progression such as from smallest to largest or shortest or tallest.
A skill learned during the concrete operational stage in which children can mentally arrange and compare objects. This is the ability to infer a relationship between two objects on the basis of knowledge of their respective relationships with a third object. (If a>b and b>c, then a>c)
A mental transformation that requires reversible thinking. (+X is reversed by -X)
A mental transformation that requires reversible thinking. (MM)
Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development
Lev Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist, developed a theory of cognitive development based on two key ideas. He proposed children understand the world based on social interactions within their culture and the sign systems that represent ideas. These systems include symbols used to think, solve problems, and communicate. Vygotsky's theory highlights the socio-cultural nature of learning.
According to Vygotsky's theory, self-regulation is the ability to think and solve problems without the help of others. Learning is a social process and learning occurs when self-regulation is achieved.
Symbols that cultures create to help people think, solve problems, and communicate.
Inner speech or children's self-talk that guides thinking and actions; an important consideration in Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development.
Zone of Proximal Development
Level of development immediately above a student's present level. The tasks within the zone of proximal development require assistance from the teacher or a more knowledgeable other. Students cannot perform tasks alone within the zone of proximal development. Activities designed within this zone are guided activities.
Support for learning and problem solving that include clues, reminders, examples, or encouragement. Scaffolding allows a student to make a learning connection and become independent as a learner.
Strategies in which students work together to help one another learn by sharing perspectives and providing models of slightly advanced thinking.
Developmentally Appropriate Education
Instruction intentionally adapted to the current developmental level of students rather than planned according their chronological age or grade level.
A set of principles that relates social environment to psychological development.
Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development
Trained by Freud as a psychoanalyst, Erikson proposed people pass through eight psychosocial stages of development. A psychosocial crisis is resolved at each stage.
Piaget's Theory of Moral Development
Part of Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development addresses children's moral reasoning. Piaget proposed that as children's thinking becomes more advanced their understanding of moral problems deepens. 1. Heteronomous Morality (based on rules and consequences) 2. Autonomous Morality (based on mutual respect and recognition)
According to Piaget's theory of moral development, the younger stage when children think rules are unchangeable and that breaking rules leads to punishment.
According to Piaget's theory of moral development, the older stage when children understand that rules are created and that punishments are not automatic.
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Reasoning
Lawrence Kohlberg proposed students pass through three levels and six stages of moral reasoning: I. Preconventional Level Stage 1 Punishment and Obedience Orientation Stage 2 Instrumental Realist Orientation II. Conventional Level Stage 3 "Good boy-Good girl" Orientation Stage 4 "Law and Order" Orientation III. Postconventional Level Stage 5 Social Contract Orientation Stage 6 Universal Ethical Principle Orientation
Preconventional Level of Morality
Stages 1 and 2 of Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning in which children make moral decisions in their own interests to avoid punishments. Safety is the main consideration.
Conventional Level of Morality
Stages 3 and 4 of Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning during which children make moral decisions in consideration of others. Fairness is the main consideration.
Socioeconomic Status (SES)
Social class defined in terms of income, occupation, education, possessions, and prestige in society. A measure of prestige within a social group.
A culture, history, and sense of identity shared by a group of people; a way of life. A shared cultural heritage and traditions often based on race, religion, language, or national identity.
Instructional programs for students who speak little or no English in which instruction is provided in the native language as well as English. The four types of programs include: language immersion; transitional; paired bilingual; and two-way bilingual.
Limited English Proficient (LEP)
A student who possesses limited mastery of the English language affecting instruction and learning.
English as a Second Language (ESL)
Instruction program for students who are not native speakers of English in which all instruction is provided in English; an English immersion instructional program in which all subjects are taught in English.
An approach to education that includes non-European perspectives in the curriculum; an educational approach designed to improve outcomes for all students of different cultural backgrounds and genders.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
A special education law that requires schools to educate students with disabilities in least restrictive environments to the greatest extent of their abilities using plans tailored to the individual needs of the students.
Individualized Education Program (IEP)
A customized plan for a student with a disability developed by an ARD committee that guides the instruction and services the student receives.
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
Provision in IDEA that requires students with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled peers to the maximum extent appropriate.
Admission Review and Dismissal (ARD)
A committee composed of the parent, administrator, assessment personnel, regular education teacher, special education teacher, and other pertinent representatives who meet on a regular basis to make decisions in regard to admission, services, and dismissal from special education.
An instructional arrangement whereby students with disabilities receive instruction and services in a general education setting with regular education peers.
Gifted and Talented (GT)
Instructional programs designed for students with exceptional intellectual ability, creativity, or talent; enrichment programs.
A theory of individual learner preferences proposed by Dunn & Dunn addressing environmental factors.
An intelligence theory developed by Howard Gardner that changes the question from "How smart are you?" to "How are you smart?" The eight intelligences include: 1. interpersonal 2. intrapersonal 3. musical; linguistic 4. spatial 5. logical mathematical 6. bodily-kinesthetic 7. linguistic 8. naturalist
A teacher-directed approach to instruction; an instructional approach in which the teacher transmits information through goal-oriented, structured lessons. The seven parts to a direct instruction lesson include: 1. State learning objectives 2. Review prerequisites 3. Present new material 4. Conduct learning probes 5. Provide independent practice 6. Assessment and feedback 7. Review and provide distributed practice
Students' attitudes of readiness to begin a lesson that involves motivation and activation of prior knowledge on the topic of instruction; focus.
The length of time a teacher waits for a student to answer a question before helping the student answer or asking another student. Research indicates teachers who wait approximately 3 seconds after asking a question get better results that teachers who wait less (Tobin, 1986).
The order in which students are called on by the teacher to answer questions during the course of a classroom activity or lesson. Most teachers expand the definition of calling order to include the decision of whether to ask a question and then call on a student or call on student and then phrase the question.
Responses to questions made by an entire group of student in unison designed to provide the highest level of support with immediate feedback.
The portion of allocated time students are actively engaged in learning; engaged learning time. Allocated time refers to the opportunity for the entire class to engage in learning while engaged time differs for each student.
The focus of a lesson; what students are expected to learn.
Overt behavior is observable and covert behavior is cognitive and involves thinking. Teachers must generate overt behavior to monitor students' progress toward learning goals.
The amount of content covered; rate at which content is taught with understanding.
The teacher's ability to maintain a continued focus on a meaningful sequence of instruction (Kounin, 1970); transitions between instructional sequences that maintain a focus on learning.
The teacher's ability to avoid interruptions or slowing down instruction (Kounin, 1970); keeping an appropriate pace for instruction.
The use of consequences to strengthen behavior. Positive-pleasurable consequence given to strengthen behavior Negative-release from an unpleasant situation given to strengthen behavior
The teaching of a new skill or behavior by using reinforcement for incremental steps toward the desired goal.
A technique in which information or skills to be learned are repeated often over a concentrated period of time.
A technique in which information or skills to be learned are repeated at intervals over a period of time or intermittently.
The level to which students remembers or retains relevant learning information. Factors affecting retention include emotions, degree of original learning, practice, etc.
A constructivist approach in which students begin with complex problems to solve, and then work out or discover (with teacher guidance) the basic skills and generalizations.
An internal process that activates, guides, and maintains behavior over time. Intrinsic incentive-internal or natural desire or interest. Extrinsic incentive-an environmental reward or consequence affecting attitude.
The process of repeatedly associating a previously neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus in order to create a conditioned response. (example: raise your arm in the air and the group gets quiet or ring a bell and the students change groups)
The use of positive or negative consequences to control the occurrence of behavior. (example: awarding points for reading)
The formation of groups for a short period of time to support instruction; using a variety of grouping formats to support learning. Formats include large, small, partner, and one-on-one. Heterogeneous-group members differ in skills, needs, abilities, interests, learning styles, etc. Homogeneous-group member have similar skills, abilities, interests, learning styles, etc.
The way a classroom feels to the participants.
Conditions in which negative conflict grows. Some conflict contaminants include negativism, unrealistic expectations, poor communication, personal stressors, the savior syndrome, jumping to conclusions, lack of support and trust, and preference protection (Nath, p.155)
Techniques employed to reduce or eliminate conflict between classroom participants. Techniques include using conciliatory gestures, avoidance, altering group structure, role clarification, communication, direct order, compromise, etc.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
An hierarchy of requirements for the well-being of a student including deficiency and growth needs. The hierarchy includes: 1. Survival 2. Safety 3. Belonging 4. Self-Esteem 5. Intellectual Achievement 6. Aesthetic Appreciation 7. Self-Actualization
Cambourne's Conditions for Learning
Characteristics of the environment that support learning. 1. Immersion 2. Demonstration 3. Expectation 4. Responsibility 5. Employment 6. Approximation 7. Engagement
The degree to which the teacher is aware of and responsive to student behavior; a heightened sense of attentiveness to relevant student behavior.
A teacher's ability to predict and respond to behavior problems without interrupting a classroom lesson or activity.
Principle of Least Intervention
Correcting misbehaviors by using the simplest or least invasive intervention that will work. Possible steps include: 1. Prevention 2. Using nonverbal cues 3. Verbal Reminders 3. Consequences
A home-based reinforcement system in which teachers work out with parents an arrangement to give or remove students special privileges at home if they meet well-specified standards of behavior.
Articulated expectations regarding student behavior; general expectations or standards of behavior. (example: respect others)
Communicated expectations for specific student behavior. (example: keep hands and objects to yourself as we walk down the hall to the library)
A program in which rewards or punishments are given to a class or group as a whole for adhering to or violating rules or procedures.
A way of instruction that meets the needs, goals, and objectives of the learners; a plan, approach, or technique used to teach learning objectives. Teacher-centered-associated with direct models of instruction in which teachers provide information and students follow with practice sessions (example: deductive lessons) Student-centered-associated with constructivist models of instruction in which students are more active and interactive in the learning process (example: inductive and discovery learning)
Fair Use Guidelines
Guidelines limiting the rights of copyright holders and allowing portions of copyrighted materials to be used for educational purposes; guidelines for portion, time, amount, and distribution of copyrighted materials for educational purposes.
Software installed on computers to prevent unwanted or inappropriate viewing of Web sites or information accessed via the Internet.
A self-learning technique using computer software; mastery of learning objectives involving interaction of the students with technological programmed instructional materials.
Any unauthorized use of computer software. Piracy is determined by the type of software and license agreement. Freeware-public domain and free to use and copy Shareware-free for a trial period and then requires purchase and registration Commercial-requires purchase and registration for any use
Technology for students with disabilities that assists achievement of goals as specified in the student's Individualized Education Program (IEP).
A measurement appraisal process that is ongoing, developmentally appropriate, and dynamic; the process of gathering evidence of learning.
A formal measurement and judgment of student performance or behavior.
Assessment data that show a student's progress or lack of progress toward curricular objectives during the process of instruction.
Assessment data collected after instruction to evaluate a student's mastery of the curriculum objectives and a teacher's effectiveness at instructional delivery.
The consistency of test results over time. A reliable measure is one that yields similar results time after time when administered to the same type or level of students under the same conditions.
The truthfulness of the assessment information; a determination of how closely a score report measures what it purports to measure. (Does it measure the content?)
A test takers performance reported in comparison to other test takers in the same age or grade sample. Results are reported in standard scores, percentile ranks, t scores, or z scores.
A test takers performance reported as mastery of learning criteria or standards. Passing requires answering a certain percentage correctly. The TAKS test is a criterion-referenced test.
Formal or standardized assessments that report learning of constructs in numerical terms; assessment of learning reported in numbers.
An alternative assessment method based on a student's performance of a skill based on a real-life situation.
Demonstrating learning or a specific skill by constructing a product or solving a problem that could be generated from a real-life situation.
An authentic assessment tool used to assess student progress; a systematic collection of student work documenting evidence of learning.
Standardized scores that compare an individual with other test takers and report that he/she scored as well as or better than a certain percentage of the sample group.
Site-Based Decision Making
School-based, collaborative management; a form of management in which the participants in the school community make decisions regarding governance.
Professional Development Appraisal System (PDAS)
The current appraisal system used by most of the schools in Texas concentrating on eight domains:
How teachers see themselves as members of the learning community and teaching profession as well as the images they project; behaving in an ethical manner when interacting with colleagues, students, and parents.
An experienced teacher or administrator who provides guidance and customized assistance to promote retention and success of new teachers.
Activities that enhance teachers' professional knowledge, competence, and expertise.
Educators' Code of Ethics
A code that sets standards and expectations for ethical practice by Texas teachers; a document outlining ethical conduct toward colleagues, school officials, parents, and members of the community,
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
A federal law enacted in 1974 that sets the requirements to protect the privacy of parents or legal caregivers of students.
All levels of district employees meet to learn about and plan for the entire district; gaining knowledge from all levels of the district to make appropriate decisions. (example: coordination between grade levels)
Members from the same level of the district meet to learn about and plan for the individual school or grade level. (example: collaboration within a grade level)
Play in which children engage in the same activity side by side but with very little interaction or mutual influence.
An ordering of learning objectives or questions based on levels of thinking from simple learning tasks to more complex. The levels of the cognitive domain include: 1. Knowledge 2. Comprehension 3. Application 4. Analysis 5. Sythesis 6. Evaluation
The tendency for learners to remember items at the beginning of a list more easily than other items; remembering information at the beginning of a text or lesson.
The tendency for learners to remember items at the end of a list more easily than other items; remembering information at the end of a text or lesson.
Knowledge about one's own learning or about how to learn; thinking about thinking.
Knowledge about or experience with a topic that enables connections for learning; a basis for comprehension or understanding.
A classroom in which all learners feel their opinions and contributions are valued.
One's perception of oneself; how one feels about self.
The belief that one is capable of accomplishing something.
The ability to apply learning in one area to learning in another area; the effects learning in one area has on new learning or applications. Positive transfer- the ability to appropriately apply learning in one area to another area; learning in one area enhances learning in new contexts. Negative transfer- inappropriately applying learning in one area to learning in another area: learning in one area makes it more difficult or confusing to learn in another area.
The fourth stage of cognitive development (11 years to adulthood) in which abstract and symbolic thought is possible. Problems can be solved through the use of experimentation and critical thinking.
Postconventional Level of Morality
Stages 5 and 6 of Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning in which students define their own values in terms of ethical principles. Ethical behavior is a decision of conscience according to self-chosen principles and laws can be changed for the good of society.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior | Andrew DuBrin
TEXES PPR EC-12 (160)
Principles of Learning & Teaching (PLT) 7-12 - Summary
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Gifted Learners Final
Book reading 12-20
Final Exam, History from 1877, Essay Portion
Hist 2323 Exam 2 Lectu + my notes Ch15
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
PPR Texas Test
Texas PPR Review
Pedagogy and Professional Responsibilities (PPR) 160