Asexual & Sexual Reproduction Vocabulary Practice

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Sexual Reproduction
the production of new living organisms by combining genetic information from two individuals (parents) of different types (sexes).
Asexual Reproduction
The production of offspring genetically identical to the parent; only one organism is necessary for this to occur. Only one set of DNA is involved in this process. Advantage: increases population quickly, doesn't require a mate. Disadvantages: lack of genetic diversity in the offspring. Offspring can inherit mutations from their parent.
Gametes
sex cells, such as sperm and egg cells.
Meiosis
a type of cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes in the parent cell by half and produces four gamete cells. This process is required to produce egg and sperm cells for sexual reproduction.
Mitosis
A method of cell division in which a cell divides and produces identical copies of itself.
sperm cell
The male sex cell or gamete which contains a half set of chromosomes, (haploid number of chromosomes).
egg cell
The female sex cell or gamete which contains a half set of chromosomes, (haploid number of chromosomes)
haploid number of chromosomes
The term used to describe a half set of chromosomes. Abbreviated as 1N.
diploid number of chromosomes
The term used to describe a full set of chromosomes in an organism. Abbreviated as 2N.
zygote
A fertilized egg cell . The egg and sperm cells have combined.
fertilization
Union of sperm and egg cell to form a zygote or fertilized egg cell.
embryo
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multi-cellular diploid eukaryotic organism. In general, in organisms that reproduce sexually, an embryo develops from a zygote, the single cell resulting from the fertilization of the female egg cell by the male sperm cell.
replication of DNA
The process of DNA unwinding and copying each side of the molecule resulting in two identical strands of DNA being produced. This occurs before a cell divides.
genetic material
A term that refers to the DNA or RNA in cells. These molecules carry the instructions for the cell to make proteins needed.
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic Acid is a macromolecule that carries the genetic code. Usually, found in the nucleus of a cell. Chromosomes are made up of DNA molecules.
offspring
A parents child.
binary fission
One organism copies its genetic material (DNA) and divide in half to form two identical daughter cells. Most unicellular organisms such as bacteria and some protozoans such as amoeba, paramecium, euglena.
daughter cells
Either of the two cells formed when a cell undergoes cell division by mitosis. Daughter cells are genetically identical to the parent cell because they contain the same number and type of chromosomes.
budding
A cell or organism develops an outgrowth (bud) which is detached from the parent and becomes a new individual. Results in two different sized cells made with identical DNA. Examples include: Sponges, corals, jellyfish, yeast, and hydra, spider plants, and potatoes.
Sporulation
An organism produces spores that are genetically identical to the parent and can travel by wind or water and produce new offspring. Examples: Fungi such as mushrooms, mold, puffballs, and mosses and ferns, and some algae.
Regeneration
Also called fragmentation. This process uses mitosis to repair or grow lost or damaged body parts. Some animals can also grow new organisms from individual pieces. Examples: Sea sponges, starfishes, some worms, such segmented worms and some flat worms such as planaria. Lobsters, some lizards tails, and newts can regenerate body parts.
Cloning
Only one parents genetic material is used to make a new organism which would make the offspring genetically identical to its one parent. Examples: Clones of sheep and other cattle, and plants have been cloned.
Parthenogenesis
Organisms can be produced from unfertilized eggs. Most of the species that can do this switch between sexual and asexual reproduction. This process is used in the absence of potential mates. Examples: some fish, some reptiles, such as the komodo dragon and some geckos, some amphibians, and some insects, such as aphids and the water flea called Daphnia.
Vegetative propagation
Asexual reproduction that occurs in plants. Examples include: tubers such as potatoes, bulbs,such as garlic, onion, tulips, rhizomes,such as grasses, weeds and seedges, and runners, such as strawberry plants.
Tuber
Underground stems with a fleshy part that stores nutrients. Tiny scale leaves equipped with buds grow on its surface. Each bud can grow a new plant genetically identical to the parent. Example: potatoes, yams.
bulb
Short, thick underground stems and leaves that store food for future developing plants. Each bulb contains other buds which can give rise to new plants. Examples: garlic, onions, tulips.
rhizomes
Horizontal underground stems that grow out of the original plant and invade nearby soil then develop a new vertical stem at certain points. Examples: grasses, weeds, and sedges ( plants that grow in wet ground).
Runner
Horizontal stem growing above ground from the parent plant. When terminal buds touch the ground they take root and produce new plants. Examples: Strawberry plants
Sepal
The outer leaf-like part of a flower that encloses the developing bud for protection.
Petal
The colorful flower structures which attract pollinators, and act as a landing pad for pollinators while they are seeking nectar.
Pistil
Stigma, Style, and Ovary with ovules
Stamen
Anther, filament, and pollen
Stigma
Sticky part of the female reproductive organ that receives pollen.
Style
Long tube that connects the stigma to the ovary. Pollen tubes grows through it to fertilize the ovules (eggs). Also provides support to the stigma
Ovary
Contains and protects the ovules which when fertilized, the ovules develop into seeds and this organ develops into a fruit.
Ovules
Carries the genetic code for the female plant. Also known as egg cells.
Anther
Made of four pollen sacs which produce pollen grains via meiosis.
filament
Provides support for the anther in a flower.
pollen
Carries the genetic code of the male plant. It is plant sperm and some people are allergic to it.
Receptacle
The top end of a flower stem which all of the flower parts are attached.
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