30 terms

MYP 9&10 Biology Glossary-1

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Active site
Region of an enzyme where the substrate binds
Active transport
Movement of substances from lower to higher concentration (for example, against their concentration gradient), this need energy from respiration
Aerobic respiration
Biochemical process that releases energy from a sugar in the presence of oxygen
Algae
Protoctista that contain chlorophyll but lack roots, leaves and transport tissue, Includes many single-celled forms and the seaweeds
Alveolus
Air sac in the lung where gas exchange takes place
Amino acid
Building block of proteins
Anabolic reactions
When complex molecules are build up from smaller ones
Anaerobic respiration
Respiration in the absence of oxygen, producing either lactic acid (humans) or ethanol (plants and yeast)
Analogous features
Similar in structure but of different evolutionary origin
Artery
Blood vessel that carried blood away from the heart to tissues and organs of the body
Atrium
The upper chambers of a heart, into which blood flows
Autotroph
A 'self-feeder'- an organism that can make its own food (glucose) from simpler substances
Plasmid
An independently replicating circle of DNA containing a few genes, They are found in bacteria and can be used to carry genes into a suitable host bacterium
Pleural membrane
Tissue lining lungs and thorax cavity ensuring that the lungs are air-tight
Prokaryotes
A microscopic organism without a true nucleus, One of the five kingdoms of life
Protein
A long chain of amino acids joined together, forming a specific shape
Protoctista
Kingdom containing all unicellular, microscopic organisms (except prokaryotes), Some protoctists have the characteristics of animal cells, whereas others are like plant cells, containing a cell wall and chloroplasts
Respiration
Break down glucose to release energy
Ribosome
Organelle where proteins are made, It is the smallest organelle in cells
Sensitivity
Responding to changes in the environment enabling the survival of the organism
Small intestine
The part of the intestine that runs between the stomach and the large intestine, where digestion and absorption of food takes place
Soluble
Can dissolve in water
Spongy mesophyll
Layer of cells in a leaf where gas exchange takes place
Stem cell
A cell can repeatedly divide into more stem cells which are unspecialized, and the later ability to differentiate into mature cell types, such as muscle, blood and nerve cells
Vein
Blood vessel that carried blood toward the heart from tissues and organs of the body
Ventricle
The lower chambers of the heart, from which blood is pumped along arteries into the body
Vessel
A hollow tube along which substances can flow
Villus
Folds in the wall of the small intestine, increasing surface area for the absorption of food
Virus
A non-cellular pathogen made up of a protein coat and genetic material that invades living cells and uses their cellular machinery to replicate, Does not independently carry out any of life's functions
Vitamins
Chemicals that ensure cells function properly, (vitamins C and D)