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80 terms

Ch. 13 Psychological Disorders

STUDY
PLAY
Biological model of disorders
View of psychological disorders have a biochemical or physiological basis
Psychoanalytic model of disorders
view that psychological disorders result from unconscious internal conflicts
Cognitive-behavioral model of disorders
view that psychological disorders result from learning maladaptive ways of thinking and behaving
Diathesis-stress model of disorders
View that people biologically predisposed to a mental disorder will tend to exhibit that disorder when particularly affected by stress
Disthesis
biological predisposition
Systems approach to disorders
view that biological, psychological, and social risk factors combine to produce psychological disorders. AKA biopyschological model
the Personality disorders
Antisocial, borderline, narcissistic, and dependent _ disorder
the Adjustment disorders
_ disorder with depressed mood, _ disorder with conduct disturbance
the impulse-control disorders
kleptomania, pyromania, pathological gambling
the sleep disorders
insomnia, narcolepsy, sleep terror disorder
the eating disorders
anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa
the sexual/gender identity disorders
hypoactive sexual desire, male erectile disorder, female orgasmic disorder, vaginismus
the dissociative disorders
_ amnesia, _ fugue, _ identity disorder, depersonalization disorder
the factitious disorders
factitious disorder with predominately physical signs and symptoms
somatoform disorders
somatization disorder, conversion disorder, hypochondriasis
the anxiety disorders
panic disorder with agoraphobia, social phobia, OCD, post-traumatic-stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder
the mood disorders
major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, bipolar disorder
mood disorders
disturbances in mood or prolonged emotional state
depression
a mood disorder characterized by overwhelming feelings of sadness, lack of interest in activities, and perhaps excessive guilt or feelings or worthlessness
psychotic
marked by defective or lost contact with reality
mania
a mood disorder characterized by euphoric states, extreme physical activity, excessive talkativeness, distractedness, and sometimes grandiosity
bipolar disorder
a mood disorder in which periods of mania and depression alternate, sometimes with periods of normal mood intervening
cognitive distortions
an illogical maladaptive response to early negative life events that leads to feelings of of incompetence and unworthiness that are reactivated whenever a new situation arises that resembles the original events
anxiety disorders
disorders in which anxiety is a characteristic feature or the avoidance of anxiety seems to motivate abnormal behavior
specific phobia
anxiety disorder characterized by intense, paralyzing fear of something
social phobia
an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, inappropriate fears connected with social situations or performances in front of other people
agoraphobia
an anxiety disorder that involves multiple, intense fear of crowds, public places, and other situations that require separation from a source of security, such as home
panic disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent panic attacks in which the person suddenly experiences intense fear or terror without any reasonable cause
generalized anxiety disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by prolonged vague but intense fears that are not attached to any particular object or circumstance
OCD
an anxiety disorder in which a person feels driven to think disturbing thoughts and/or to perform senseless rituals
psychosomatic disorders
disorders in which there is a real physical illness that is largely caused by psychological factors such as stress and anxiety
somatoform disorders
disorders in which there is an apparent physical illness for which there is no organic basis
Somatization disorder
a somatoform disorder characterized by recurrent vague somatic complaints without a physical cause
conversion disorders
somatoform disorders in which a dramatic specific disability has no physical cause but instead seems related t psychological problems
hypochondriasis
a somatoform disorder in which a person interprets insignificant symptoms as signs of serious illness in the absence of any organic evidence of such illness
body dysmorphic disorder
a somatoform disorder in which a person becomes so preoccupied with his or her imagined ugliness that normal life is impossible
dissociative disorders
disorders in which some aspect of the personality seems separated from the rest
dissociative amnesia
a dissociative disorder characterized by loss of memory for past events without organic causes
dissociative fugue
a dissociative disorder that involves flight from home and the assumption of a new identity with amnsia for past identity and events.
dissociative identity disorder
i dissociative disorder in which a person has several distinct personalities that emerge at different times
depersonalization disorder
a dissociative disorder whose essential feature is that the person suddenly feels changed or different in a strange way
sexual dysfunction
loss or impairment of the ordinary physical responses of sexual function
erectile disorder
the inability of a man to acheive or maintain an erection
female sexual arousal disorder
the inability of a woman to become sexually aroused or to reach orgasm
sexual desire disorders
disorders in which the person lacks sexual interest or has an active distaste for sex
sexual arousal disorder
inability to achieve or sustain arousal until the end of intercourse in a person who is capable of experiencing sexual desire
orgasm
peaking of sexual pleasure and release of sexual tension
orgasmic disorders
inability to reach orgasm in a person able to experience sexual desire and maintain arousal
premature ejaculation
inability of a man to inhibit orgasm as long as desired
vaginismus
involuntary muscle spasms in the outer part of the vagina that make intercourse impossible
paraphilias
sexual disorders in which unconventional objects or situations cause sexual arousal
fetishism
a paraphilia in which a nonhuman object is the preferred or exclusive method of achieving sexual excitement
voyeurism
desire to watch others having sexual relations or to spy on nude people
exhibitionism
compulsion to expose one's genitals in public to achieve sexual arousal
frotteurism
compulsion to achieve sexual arousal by touching or rubbing against a non consenting person in public situations
transvestic fetishism
wearing the clothes of the opposite sex to achieve sexual gratification
sexual sadism
obtaining sexual gratification from humiliating or physically harming a sexual partner
sexual masochism
inability to enjoy sex without accompanying emotional or physical pain
pedophilia
desire to have sexual relations with children as the preferred or exclusive method of achieving sexual excitement
Gender-identity disorders
disorders that involve the desire to become, or the insistence that one really is, a member of the opposite sex
Gender-identity disorder in children
rejection of one's biological gender in childhood, along with clothing and behavior society considers appropriate to that gender
personality disorders
disorders in which inflexible and maladaptive ways of thinking and behaving learned in early life cause distress to the person and/or conflicts with others
schizoid personality disorder
personality disorder in which a person is withdrawn and lacks feelings for others
paranoid personality disorder
personality disorder in which the person is inappropriately suspicious and mistrustful of others
dependent personality disorder
personality disorder in which the person is unable to make choices and decisions independently and cannot tolerate being alone
avoidant personality disorder
personality disorder in which the person's fears of rejection by others leads to social isolation
narcissistic personality disorder
personality disorder in which the person has an exaggerated sense of self-importance and needs constant admiration
borderline personality disorder
personality disorder characterized by marked instability in self-image, mood, and interpersonal relationships
antisocial personality disorder
personality disorder that involves a pattern of violent, criminal ,or unethical and exploitative behavior and an inability to feel affection for others
schizophrenic disorders
severe disorders in which there are disturbances of thoughts, communications, and emotions, including delusions and hallucinations
insanity
legal term for mentally disturbed people who are not considered responsible for their criminal actions
hallucinations
sensory experiences in the absence of external stimulation
delusions
false beliefs about reality that have no basis in fact
disorganized schizophrenia
schizophrenic disorder in which bizarre and child like behaviors are common
catatonic schizophrenia
schizophrenic disorder in which disturbed motor behavior is prominent
paranoid schizophrenia
schizophrenic disorder marked by extreme suspiciousness and complex, bizarre delusions
undifferentiated schizophrenia
schizophrenic disorder in which there are clear schizophrenic symptoms that don't meet the criteria for another subtype of the disorder
ADHD
a childhood disorder characterized by inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity
Psychostimulants
drugs that increase ability to focus attention in children with ADHD
Autistic Disorder
a childhood disorder characterized by lack of social instincts and strange motor behavior