Chemistry Unit 11 Solutions

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Terms in this set (...)

Solution
a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances uniformly dispersed throughout a single phase (solid, liquid, gas)
Solvent
in a solution, the substance which does the dissolving
solute
in a solution, the substance that is dissolved
suspension
a mixture in which particles of material are more or less evenly dispersed throughout a liquid or gas.
colloids
mixtures consisting of tiny particles that are larger than those in solutions and are smaller than those in suspensions. These are stable heterogeneous mixtures. Colloids exhibit Tyndall effect
decanting
pour off the top
centrifuge
use centrifugal force to spin heavier materials to the bottom
filtration
pass through a filter
distillaton
use boiling point differences
Chromatography
based on differences in a molecule's affinity for a solvent compared to a solid
concentration
the amount of a particular substance in a given quantity of a solution
Parts per million (ppm)
grams of solute/1000000 grams solvent
molarity
moles of a solute/liter of solution, unit (M) meaning mol/L
molarity using stoichiometry
molarity x volume= number of moles
Dilution formula
M1V1=M2V2
Solubility
the ability of a substance to dissolve in another substance at a given temperature and pressure
general rule of thumb for solubility
like dissolves like
Miscible
describes two or more liquids that are able to dissolve into each other
immiscible
describes two or more liquids that do not mix
factors affecting solublity
proximity aids in dissolvation, something with a large surface area dissolves more quickly, increased temperature increased solubility
dissociation
the separation of a molecule into simpler molecules, atoms, radicals, or ions
hydration
strong affinity of water molecules for particles of dissolved or suspended substances that cause electrolytic dissociation
saturated solutions
cannot dissolve any more solute under the given conditions- any additional solute will remain undissolved
supersaturated solutions
hold more dissolved solute than would be possible
Henry's Law
At constant temperature, the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas on the surface of a liquid. High pressure means higher solubility (high pressure, low temperature)
Electrolytes
substances that conduct electric current when they are dissolved in water
Strong Electrolytes
completely dissolve and are strong conductors of electricity
Weak electrolytes
do not dissolve well and are weak conductors
nonelectrolytes
do not allow electric current to flow
colligative properties
determined by the number of particles present in a solution but independent of the particles themselves (freezing point depression, boiling point elevation and vapor pressure)
surfactants
compounds that concentrate at the boundary between two immiscible phases (s-l, l-l, or g-l)
emulsion
a mixture of two or more immiscible liquids in which one is dispersed in the other
What is made from sulfonic acids?
detergents
What is made from organic acids?
Soaps
which is not a solute-solvent combination
liquid-gas
carbon dioxide in air is an example of which solute-solvent combination?
gas-gas
sugar in water is an example of which solute-solvent combination?
solid-liquid
comparing the size of the particles in a solution and in a colloid, the particle size in the solution is
smaller
you know the number of grams of solute and the volume of solution. What is the first step in finding the molarity of the solution?
divide grams by molar mass to find the number of moles
two immiscible substances are
benzene and water
a substance that is not soluble in a polar solvent is
nonpolar
sugar is soluble in water because sugar molecules are
polar
what does not, in general, increase the solubility of a solid in a liquid
increasing pressure
when an ionic solid dissolves in water, what does not occur?
the compound ionizes
how can you best increase the solubility of a gas in a liquid
increase the temperature, decrease the pressure
to conduct electricity, a solution mus
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