a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances uniformly dispersed throughout a single phase (solid, liquid, gas)
in a solution, the substance which does the dissolving
in a solution, the substance that is dissolved
a mixture in which particles of material are more or less evenly dispersed throughout a liquid or gas.
mixtures consisting of tiny particles that are larger than those in solutions and are smaller than those in suspensions. These are stable heterogeneous mixtures. Colloids exhibit Tyndall effect
pour off the top
use centrifugal force to spin heavier materials to the bottom
pass through a filter
use boiling point differences
based on differences in a molecule's affinity for a solvent compared to a solid
the amount of a particular substance in a given quantity of a solution
Parts per million (ppm)
grams of solute/1000000 grams solvent
moles of a solute/liter of solution, unit (M) meaning mol/L
molarity using stoichiometry
molarity x volume= number of moles
the ability of a substance to dissolve in another substance at a given temperature and pressure
general rule of thumb for solubility
like dissolves like
describes two or more liquids that are able to dissolve into each other
describes two or more liquids that do not mix
factors affecting solublity
proximity aids in dissolvation, something with a large surface area dissolves more quickly, increased temperature increased solubility
the separation of a molecule into simpler molecules, atoms, radicals, or ions
strong affinity of water molecules for particles of dissolved or suspended substances that cause electrolytic dissociation
cannot dissolve any more solute under the given conditions- any additional solute will remain undissolved
hold more dissolved solute than would be possible
At constant temperature, the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas on the surface of a liquid. High pressure means higher solubility (high pressure, low temperature)
substances that conduct electric current when they are dissolved in water
completely dissolve and are strong conductors of electricity
do not dissolve well and are weak conductors
do not allow electric current to flow
determined by the number of particles present in a solution but independent of the particles themselves (freezing point depression, boiling point elevation and vapor pressure)
compounds that concentrate at the boundary between two immiscible phases (s-l, l-l, or g-l)
a mixture of two or more immiscible liquids in which one is dispersed in the other
What is made from sulfonic acids?
What is made from organic acids?
which is not a solute-solvent combination
carbon dioxide in air is an example of which solute-solvent combination?
sugar in water is an example of which solute-solvent combination?
comparing the size of the particles in a solution and in a colloid, the particle size in the solution is
you know the number of grams of solute and the volume of solution. What is the first step in finding the molarity of the solution?
divide grams by molar mass to find the number of moles
two immiscible substances are
benzene and water
a substance that is not soluble in a polar solvent is
sugar is soluble in water because sugar molecules are
what does not, in general, increase the solubility of a solid in a liquid
when an ionic solid dissolves in water, what does not occur?
the compound ionizes
how can you best increase the solubility of a gas in a liquid