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11th grade US History Chapter 10
Terms in this set (131)
haiwaian queen who was forced out of power by a revolution started by American buisness interests
the practice of strong countries taking economic, political, and military power over weaker countries
Alfred T Mahan
American imperialist and admiral who urged the United States to build up its navy and take colonies overseas, supported imperialism
secretary of state under president lincoln and johnson, purchased alaska from russia
naval port in Hawaii, best port US forced hawaii to let them have a port there, refueling station for american ships
Sanford B Dole
american buisnessman who became president of the new government of Hawaii after the queen was pushed out
When did Queen Lilioukalani give up her throne?
Three factors that fueled American imperialism
1. desire for military strength
2. thirst for new markets
3. a belief in the superiority of American culture
What happened with the builidings of ships such as the USS Maine and the Oregon?
the US became the worlds largest naval power
What happened in the last 1800s due to technology?
factories and farms were producing more than the Americans could consume, therefore the US needed foreign trade
What did american buisnesses need with foreign trade?
markets for their products and raw materials for their factories
What was the third root of American imperialism?
a belief that the people of the united states were better than the people of other countries, came from pride in Anglo Saxon heritage
heritage of american people, northern european
Alaska is purchased from Russia for $7.2 million, called "Sewards Icebox" or "Sewards folly"
What did american issionaries do in the 1820s on the hawaiin islands?
founded christian schools and churches
What had a number of americans established in Hawaii?
US agrees to import hawaiin sugar duty-free
eliminated the duty-free status of hawaiin sugar
What did the powerful hawaiin sugar growers want the US to do to Hawaii?
US forced Hawaii to let it built a naval base at pearl harbor, hawaiis best port
Hawaiin king dies, his sister lily becomes queen
what did queen lily want?
a new constitution that would give voting power back to ordinary hawaiins , american buisnesses did not want this to happen
John L Stevens
organized a revoly against quenn lily undoing the property owning voter law
hawaii becomes a US territory
white foreigners who planned to overthrow the hawaiin monarchy
what continent emerged as a prime target of European expansionism
by the early 20th century what were the only two remaining countries in Africa?
ethiopia and liberia
What other country joined European nations in competition for china in the 1890s?
What did imperialists view foreign trade as a solution to?
american over production and the related problems of unemployment and economic depression
Great White Fleet
a sign of Americas growing military power, ships painted white
What did queen lily say she would do if she was restored to power?
behead all those who conspired to despose her
a belief that free market competition would lead to the survival of the fittest
What does WASP stand for?
white angle saxon protestants
what did the WASPs argue?
that the US had responsibility to spread christianity and civilization to the inferior peoples
how much was alaska purchased for and by whom?
72 million, about 2 cents and acre and William Seward
alaska becomes a state
things alaska was rich in
timber, minerals, oil
when did the US takeover the midway islands?
same year alaska was purchased 1867
where are the midway islands?
in the pacific ocean about 1300 miles north of Hawaii
what did american sugar planters in hawaii want the US to do after the McKinley tariff?
annex the islands so they wouldnt have to pay the duty
hawaiin king who amended hawaiis constitution, effectively limititing voting rights to only wealthy land owners (all white americans)
what was queen lily's motto?
hawaii for hawaiians
what did queen lily do?
removed the property owning qualifications for voting
what president wanted the queen to be restored to her throne?
what did clevland do when Dole refused to surrender power?
formally recognized the republic of hawaii but refused to consider annexation unless a majority of hawaiians favored it
what were mckinleys views on the annexation of hawaii?
he favored it
august 12 1898
congress proclaims hawaii an american territory, although they never had the chance to vote
hawaii becomes the 50th state
to bring in as a part of your nation, add to a country as a territory or protectorate
what happened to spain by the end of the 19th century
they had lost most of their colonies, once the most powerful colonial nation
what colonies were still under spain in the late 19th century
phillipines, guam, cuba, puerto rico, few outposts in africa
diplomats recommend president franklin pierce buys cuba from spain, spain did not like that at all
whose side were the americans on when the cubans rebelled against spain?
cuban people convince spain to abolish slavery
what did american capitalists do after the emancipation of cuban slaves?
began investing millions of dollars in large sugar cane plantations in cuba
cuban political activist, launched a revolution in 1895, organized cuban resistance against spain
what techniques did marti use?
1. guerrilla campaign
2. destroyed property such as american owned sugar mills and plantations (provoking us intervention)
battle cry, free cuba
how did spain respond to cuban revolt?
sent general valeriano weyler to cuba to restore order
how did Weyler try to crush rebellion?
by herding the entire population into concentration camos where they could not aid rebels
style of writing that exaggerates the news to lure and enrage readers
two major yellow journalism writers
1. william randolph hearst (new york journal)
2. joseph pulitzer (new york world)
Mckinleys diplomatic efforts to resolve the crisis in cuba
were a success, spain recalled general weyler, modified the concentration camp policy, and offered cuba limited self government
Who wrote the De Lome Letter?
Enrique Dupuy de Lome, spanish ,minister the US
the De Lome Letter
criticized president McKinley calling him weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd, americans were very angry over the insult
sent to cuba to bring home american cictizens in danger from the fighting and to protext american property, blew up on feb 15 1989 in the harbor of havanna
rallying cry for US intervention in Cuba
remember the maine!
US declares war on spain
where did the first battle of the spanish american war take place?
comodore who gave the command to open fire on the spanish fleet in manila, the phillipine capital, had the support of the filipinos
what happened as a result of hte open fire on spanish fleet in manila?
the US gained a victory which allowed US tropps to land in the phillipines, in august spanish troops in manila surrendered to US troops
leader of the Filipino rebels, believed the US had betrayed his people
what was created in the carribean?
a naval blockade
Admiral William T Sampson
effectively sealed up the Spanish fleet in the harbor of Santiago de Cuba
What did Deweys victory at manila demonstrate?
the superiority of the US naval forces
Why were American soldiers not suitable for war in Cuba?
the climate was hot and they had wool outfits, theyw ere not properly trained, all volunteers
an act of war, completely surrounding an island with ships
a voluntery cavalry under command of Leonard Wood and TR and credited with winning the battle of San Juan Hill
Battle of San Juan HIll
followed by charge up Kettle Hill, ended in destruction of spanish fleet when they tried to escape but were destroyed by US navy, helped the US defeat Spain
what did the american troops do on the heal of the victory at san juan hill?
invaded puerto rico
how does the spanish american war end?
the US and Spain sign an armistice, a cease fire agreement, ending the war
how long did the spanish american war last?
about 16 weeks
Treaty of Paris
spain freed Cuba and turned over the islands of guam and puerto rico. us "buys" the philipines for 20 million as a financial apology for starting the war spain did not want, annexed Philipines
how did some people feel about the treaty of paris?
that it violated the declaration of independence by denying self government to the newly aquired territories
ended military rule in puerto rico and set up a civil government, US president would appoint their gov and upper house of legislature, while citizens would elect the lower, they gained fulled US citizenship
provisions im the Cuban Constitution that gave the US broad rights in the country, limited cuba's right in dealing with other countries, gave US right to intervene to preserve order
a country that is partly controlled by another, stronger country
US secretary of state, wrote the Open Door Notes
Open Door Notes
message sent by John Hay to other countries to protect US trading rights in China, called for chinas ports to remain open and for china to remain independent
Boxer Rebellion (1900)
chinese rebellion against western influence, led by chinese secret society, killed and vadalized all thigns foreign, foreign troops were called to crush this rebellion
a channel across Central America, between teh atlantic and pacific oceans, opened in 1914
roosevelts 1904 extension of the monroe doctrine, stating the US has the right to protect its economic interests in south and central america by using military force, stated the US could intervene in Latin american countries
Francisco Pancho Villa
mexican revolutionary leader american troops tried to capture, opposed carranza
John J Pershing
US general who led the troops to capture Villa
put an end to
a person who invests money in buisness
person sent to another country as a representative
free from government tax
a narrow strip of land
who was the president that used the missionary diplomacy?
how did puerto rico become an American territory?
as a result of the spanish american war
congress makes puerto ricans US citizens
Cuba after the spanish american war
officially independent but the US army remained for four years
Anti Imperialist leaders
grover cleveland, andrew carnegie, mark twain, and jane addams
two ways puerto rico was important to the US
Treaty of Paris
granted full independence to Cuba,
key features of Platt Amendment
1. right of US to maintain naval stations on the island
2. US had right to intervene in Cuban affairs for 31 years
What did the US force filipinos to do during the war/rebellion?
live in designated zones because of guerilla tactics
how many years was the philipines-american war?
3 years and it claimed 20,000 filipino rebels and 4000 american lives, cost 400,000,000 (20x the price the US paid for the land)
philipines become independent
why did many european countries colonize in china?
china had been weakened by war and foreign intervention "sick man of asia'
when did john hay issue the second set of open door notes?
after the boxer rebellion
policies of second open door notes
1. righ to intervene to keep foreign markets open
2. growth of US economy depended on exports
3. feared the closing of the area to americans or american goods
beliefs of the second on door notes became
the center of american foreign policy
two events that signaled americans were becoming 1st world power
1. roosevelt negotiated a settlement between russia and japan who were at war (treaty of portsmouth)
2.construction of the panama canal by theodore roosevelt
benefits of panama canal
1. reduced travel times for commercial and military ships
2. reduced fuel
how much did the US pay to build the panama canal?
paid 10 milion plus an annual rent of 250,000
when was the building of hte panama canal
what did america first have to do before panama let them build a canal?
help win their independence from columbia
one of the greatest engineering feats of all time
construction of the panama canal
why was TR afraid of american intervention?
the latin american countries owed money to european countries
taft administration, using the US gov to gaurentee loans made to foreign countries by american buisness people
what was dollar diplomacy done in response to?
buisness dealings with nicaragua in 1911 when american buisness's gained control of the state owned railroads after nicaragua could not pay its debt
US had a moral responsibility to deny recognition to any Latin American gov as oppressive, undemocratic, or hostile to american interests, pressured nations to implement democratic governments
ruler of mexico, military dictator, friend of the US, encouraged american investment in Mexico
what did american interest in mexico cause?
a huge gap between the rich and the poor, rich being american buisnessmen, poor being the people of mexico
become president of Mexico, this upset native americans
opposed carranza, lef a group of rebels
who supported carranza?
what happened after wilson recognized the gov of carranza?
villa started killing americans working in mexico and new mexico , wilson responded by sending troops to mexico to look for Villa
US foreign policy goals
1. Us expanded its access to foreign markets
2. Us built a modern navy to protect its interests abroad
3.the US excercised its international police power to ensure dominance in latin america
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