103 terms

AP Human Geography: Agriculture

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primary sector
draws raw materials from natural environment,
ex: agriculture, raising animals, fishing, forestry, mining
largest in low-income pre-industrial nations/poorer countries
secondary sector
industry, transforms raw materials into manufactured goods
grows as societies industrialize, ex: refining petroleum, shaping metal into tools, etc.
tertiary sector
services, not good, grows with industrialization, comes to dominate post-industrial societies
ex: construction, trade, finance, real estate
post-industrial societies
countries where people are no longer employed in industry
quaternary sector
seen as a subset of tertiary sector, service jobs concerned with research and development, management and administration, and processing/disseminating information
5 countries with large % of primary
Nigeria, China, poorer countries
5 countries with large % of secondary
China, North Korea, not many countries have majority secondary industry
5 countries with large % tertiary
UK, US, Russia, Mexico/Iran (lesser extent), richer countries
Agriculture
deliberate tending of crops and livestock to produce food and fiber
religious impact
Hindus don't eat beef, Muslims don't eat pork, impacts nature of agriculture in land with many adherents
hunters and gatherers
hunters skilled in capturing/killing animals, gatherers learned which plants and fruit were edible, traveled frequently depending on movement of game and seasonal plant growth, left little imprint on land.
Neolithic Revolution
successful cultivation of crops and domestication of animals
occurred independently in different places over a large span of time
Agricultural Hearths
where farming practices diffuse from
NR Changes
increase in reliable food supplies, rapid increase in pop., job specialization, widening of gender differences
Patriarchal Systems
men holding power
matriarchal system
women holding power
Vegetative planting
earliest from of plant cultivation, cutting/planting old plants to make new ones
vegetative hearths
Southeast Asia, West Africa, and northwestern South America
Seed Agriculture
production of plants through annual planting of seed, came later, most farmers today practice this
Seed Hearths
probably originated in SE Asia due to wide variety of plants for dividing/transplanting
Animal Domestication Hearths
dogs, pigs, chickens,
Innovations in Seed Agriculture
irrigation, plowing to loosen soil, fencing, building terraces, fertilizing, weeding
Columbian Exchange
late 15th and 16th centuries, products carried both ways across Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
Eastern hemisphere items
wheat, rice, citrus fruits, melons, horses, cattle, grapes, bananas, rice, figs, sugar, coconuts, okra, pigs, sheep, goats, chicken, rabbits, rats
Western hemisphere Items
beans, squash, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, peanuts, chilis, chocolate, maize, potatoes, avocados, pineapple, manioc
second agricultural revolution
western europe 1600s, promoted higher yield/acre and per farmer, preceded industrial revolution, innovations=fertilizer, improved animal collars(pull heavier plows)
enclosure
fencing/hedging large blocks of land for experiments with new techniques of farming, began early 1700s
crop rotations
carefully controls nutrients in soil
seed drill
by Jethro Tull, p.anted seeds more efficiently
How did Second AR lead to Industrial Revolution?
preceded industrial revolution, making it possible to feed the rapidly growing cities
Subsistence Agriculture
prevalent in LDCs, production of enough food to feed farmer's family, no/little surplus to sell
Commercial Agriculture
production of food surpluses practice mainly in more developed countries, sells to food processing companies
Agribusiness
system of commercial farming found in more developed countries, due to integration of farming into a large food production industry
% of farmers (LDC vs MDC)
LDC: >60%, subsistence
MDC: <2%, developed commercial agriculture, allows people to pursue other acts
use of machinery impact
key to successful development of commercial agriculture, tractors, combines, planters, farm machine, transportation important, farmer rely on railroad, highway, rapid sea/air travel to get goods to customers
scientific advances
fertilizers, herbicides, new plant and animal breeds
farms size (LDC vs MDC)
LDC>MDC due to advances in science+machinery, common agriculture is a handful of large farms, significant in MDCs
Intensive Subsistence
yields large amount of output/acre through concentrated farming, little/no surplus to sell, found in large pop. concentrations of E and S Asia, a little less that 50% of the world engaged
wet or lowland rice
planted on dry land in a nursery, then moved as seedling to a flood field to promote growth, requires lots of time and attention, but under ideal conditions can provide large amount of food/unit of land
shifting cultivation
aka slash and burn or swidden agriculture, exists in rainforest zones of Central?S America, W africa, E and Central Asia, S and SE Asia, destroys environment/takes up large % of arable land, used by small villages
Intertillage
growing various types of crops, common in shifting cultivation
Pastoral Nomadism
An alternative to sedentary agriculture, following the herds like early hunter gatherers, herds domesticated, ex: sheep, goats, cow, reindeer, camels, horses
nomadism
practice of moving frequently, dictated by need of pasture for animals
extensive subsistence agriculture
shifting cultivation and pastoral nomadism, involves large areas of land and minimal labor, population densities low.
intensive subsistence agriculture
involves cultivation of small plots of land through great labor, yield/land unit, area, pop. densities, all high,
commercial agriculture
farmers/ranchers sell all output for $$
mixed crop and livestock farming
most common form on commercial agriculture in US west of Appalachian Mtns., farmers grow crops and raise livestock on same land spread, with crops fed to animals, most income from sales of animal products ie eggs, milk, permits farmers to distribute workload evenly
crop rotatation
each filed planted on a planned cycle
cereal grains
oats, wheat, rye, or barley
dairy farming
outlying urban areas, products feed cities across US, W Europe. SE Canada, must be closer to their market
milkshed
ring of milk production surrounding a city
grain farming
3 US regions, heavily mechanized, labor concentrated during planting/harvesting seasons, world's leading export crop
winter wheat area
Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma, crop is planted in autumn, survives winter, ripens following summer
spring wheat area
the dakotas/montana, winters too severe for wheat
world's breadbasket
the prairies of North America
livestock ranching
commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area
pampas
prairies, used fro grazing
Mediterranean agriculture
exists in land bordering Med. Sea, California, Africa, Australia, maritime environment, on west coasts of continents, some livestock raised, horticulture=commercial base, grapes, citrus fruits, olives, grapes
horticulture
growing of fruits, vegetables, flowers, tree crops, forms commercial base of Mediterranean farming
commercial gardening and fruit farming
long growing season, humid climate, accessibility to large markets of NE US, apples, asparagus, cherry , lettuce, most sold to large companies for canning/freezing, rely on machinery and migrant farm workers
truck farming
aka commercial fruit farming and gardening
plantation farming
large farm, specializes in 1-2 crops, almost all products exported, grows cash crops, colonial legacies, persist in poorer countries
cash crops
raised to make $$ for their owners
Factors determining what to grow?
land and climate (subsistence); access to markets, competition from other farmers, and government regulations, and subsidies (commercial)
Von Thünen's Model
a famous model for rural land use in the early 19th century
market gardening and dairy
farmers raised perishable products, such as garden vegetables and milk; these are expensive to deliver and must reach the market quickly because they spoil rather quickly
forest
towns were still surrounded by belts of forest that provided wood for fuel and construction
field crops
crops that were less perishable, such as wheat and other grains
animal grazing
outermost ring devoted to livestock grazing, which required lots of space
assumptions by VT
flat terrain with uniform soils and no significant barriers to transportation to market; spatial arrangement could vary according to topography
location theory
explains how an economic activity is related to the land space where goods are produced
dispersed settlement pattern
individual farmhouses lie quite far apart; also exist where machinery makes intensive cultivation over large areas possible
nucleated settlement pattern
villages located quite close together with relatively small surrounding fields; intensive land use, but people and animals do the work; most common type of settlement worldwide
hamlets
small clusters of buildings
Factors determining housing
geography, lifestyles, and physical environments
wood
linked to the distribution of forests, but is now shipped to most corners of the world
brick
oven-baked blocks of cement
(U.S); other materials (other)
stone
natural stones are used
wattle
poles and sticks woven tightly together and then covered with mud
village
small number of people who live in a cluster of houses in a rural area
round village
traditional style found in East Africa and parts of Europe, and it features houses that circle around a central corral for animals, with fields extending outside the ring of houses
walled village
developed in ancient days in order to protect villagers from attack, often surrounded by moats
grid villages
modern village type laid out in straight street patterns that run in parallel and perpendicular lines
linear village
modern village type that follow major roads, often one single thoroughfare lined with houses, businesses, and public buildings
cluster village
have more than one major road that they build along, and they also have housing that clusters around large public buildings, such as churches, temples, mosques, livestock corrals, or grain bins
primogeniture
all land is passed to the eldest son, resulting in large parcels that are tended individually
rectangular survey pattern
encouraged settlers to disperse evenly across interior farmlands
metes and bounds
land survey where natural features are used to mark irregular parcels of land
long-lot survey system
land survey that divides land into narrow parcels that extend from rivers, roads, or canals; gives more people access to transportation, and has been used in the Canadian Maritimes, Quebec, Louisiana, and Texas
Mercantilism
developed by the British and Dutch, with private companies under charter from the governments carrying out the trade; the main goal was to benefit the mother country by trading goods to accumulate precious metals to enrich the country
Specialization
growing of certain crops because they seem the most profitable, including costs of production, machinery, fuel, fertilizer, labour, weather, and disease; reduced risks by signing very specific agreements with buyer-processors
Agribusiness
spreading to developing countries where small size farmers are linking with foreign sources for advice, seeds, fertilizers, machinery, and profitable markets; led farmers in wealthy countries to place controversial tariffs on the foreign produce to protect farmers
third agricultural revolution
began in the mid-20th century, still going on in the form of industrial ag; marked a point in time where farmers began the industrialized production of crops, as opposed to the original production
industrial agriculture
modern farming that refuses to the industrialized production of livestock, poultry, fish, and crops; methods used include innovations in ag. machinery, genetic technology, techniques for achieving economies of scale in production, new market creation, and global trade
biotechnology
use of genetically altered crops in agriculture and DNA manipulation in livestock to increase population; began with hybrid rice which led to "IR8" cross of Chinese and Indonesian, which led to other hybrids, like "IR56" and a "miracle wheat seed" which ws shorter and stiffer
Green Revolution
collection of new techniques which involved higher-yield seeds and expanded use of fertilizer; miracle seeds diffused, and critical elements in manure and bones were taken and used to manufacture new fertilizers
impact of Green Revolution
brought about dramatic changes in the world's food production with consequences both praised/criticised; didnt contribute to Sub-Saharan Africa who was struck with famine and desertification, as well as poverty
Desertification
when land is overgrazed and overplanted and eventually is no longer arable land; where this occurred is Sub-Saharan Africa, the Sahara Desert gained more and more land space
Environmental Impacts of Modern Agriculture
plots of earth have been cleared so that more desirable/profitable crops can be grown; ag lands erode quickly, organic content of soil changes, and natural vegetation, and chemicals are found in soil due to fertilizers
Green Revolution Good/Bad?
✓: ag production, population growth, nitrogen, fertilizers increased farm productivity, increased crop yields, greater agribusiness

X: poor countries cannot afford machinery, fertilizers, overfishing, famine, groundwater depletion, no variety
organic agriculture
crops are grown without fertilizers and pesticides, ensuring that the consumer will not suffer adverse health effects from them
sustainable agriculture
attempts to integrate plant and animal production practices that will protect the ecosystem over the long term; promotes the idea that human needs can be met without sacrificing environmental quality and depleting natural resources
future food supply
a crutial component of every economy and throughout history almost all other accomplishments have rested on the availability of food supplies