41. Patient, age 24, has been suffering from food poisoning with vomiting and diarrhea. He has been drinking a lot of plain water, not Gaitoraid or Pedialite. Skin and mucous membranes are dry, and he's complaining of a headache. Heart rate is normal, but he has high BP=200/120.
Do you give an iv solution that is hyper, hypo, or isotonic? Why?
• The person has hypotonic dehydration, so give a hypertonic solution.
• He has excess solute loss from GI distress, while replacing it with plain water. His plasma fluid has more water than particles, water moves from the plasma to the interstitial space, and then into the cells. This can lead to shock.
• The headache is from the brain cells swelling from the excess water they have absorbed.
• He should have replaced the electrolytes by drinking something like Gaitoraid or Pedialite.