Sociology Exam 2 Part 2
Terms in this set (61)
Formally or informally, a significant
part of life is spent in
a social unit consisting of two or more persons
To be a group member one must think of themselves as a member of the group, and other
group members must recognize the person as part
of the group as well.
Group members interact with one another; their
behavior influences one another.
Group members are interdependent with respect to
goal attainment; one's progress toward an objective
makes it more likely another member will also reach
Groups have normative expectations that place limits on behavior and define appropriate conduct.
a small group with
strong emotional ties among members
have few emotional
ties among members; members refer less to one another as
individuals and more as occupants of roles; Interaction tends to be formal and impersonal
Size, formality, relations
Groups vary in terms of:
Actors become more and more
constrained the larger the group one is part of; The difference between small and large
groups shows how structure emerges to constrain agency
Actors have opportunities to interact directly in small groups; In large groups, formal structures are required for interaction (i.e. actors are
more likely to interact indirectly)
In small groups,
people tend to refer to one another as individuals; In large groups people tend to refer to
others using abstract generalizations
refers to the extent
members of a group desire to remain in the group and resist leaving it; these groups have strong ties among
members, and members tend to
perceive events in similar ways.
1. Communicate more
2. Have friendlier, more cooperative interactions
3. Work harder to coordinate and reach agreement
4. Have more influence on each other
5. Conform more to group expectations
6. Have higher levels of performance and
productivity (if task-oriented)
In highly cohesive groups, members:
Social cohesion and task cohesion
Group cohesion can take 2 different forms:
When members stay in a group due to mutual liking.
Defines members' desire to stay part of a group in
order to complete a common task the group shares.
the highest initiator who drives the group toward attainment of its goals.
emerges in response to the
pushiness and aggressiveness of the task-oriented leader; specialize in easing the tension and soothing hurt feelings of group members
Those similar to us are categorized as
an__________________; tend to be evaluated positively
Those dissimilar to us are categorized
as an________________; tend to be evaluated negatively
Biases can serve as a positive motivational
device that strengthens an in-group's effort,
boosts group morale, and helps members
What are the positive effects of in-group bias?
stereotyping and discrimination of the out-group and of its individual members
What are the negative effects of in-group bias?
What did Samuel A. Stouffer examine?
a social group that
serves as a point of reference for people when making evaluations or decisions.
People do not so much evaluate success or
failure by objective standards, but rather on
the basis of their position relative to others
experiment on spatial judgments
showed how powerful group conformity
Asch revealed that people do not always behave _____________________; they often behave ___________________ in order to conform to group norms
The Asch Experiment discovered that participants conformed to the majority decision, even when the majority was wrong!
True or False?
Problems of coordination
Large groups have the advantage of greater resources (information and skills) which can
lead to greater productivity, but they can
suffer ___________________________________________ among
1. The Ringelmann effect
2. Social loafing
Two phenomena can occur in large groups:
The Ringelmann effect
a law stating that the average contribution of each group member decreases as group size
increases; Loss in a group's contribution is due to
coordination loss among additive efforts
among group members
Ringelmann's experiment measured group
members' efforts in a ______________________
The larger a group, the more likely
individual members will become this; represents motivation loss that
occurs when there is no clear way to know
how much individual group members are
contributing to a task
What influences intergroup contact?
False (the larger a group)
The smaller a group, the more likely members
will maintain relationships only with other in-group
True or False?
The more internally heterogeneous a group is,
the more likely its members will interact with
The greater the overall social parity within a
setting, the more likely people from diverse
backgrounds will mingle and form ties.
True or False?
_____________________ affects the chances of contact among groups.
Intergroup contact hypothesis
The _________________________________________________________________ proposes
that increased contact between members
of opposing groups will lessen stereotypes
and reduce bias, consequently lessening
antagonism between groups.
1. Sustained close contact produces cognitive
dissonance, which produces changes in attitudes
2. Self-disclosure increases during sustained contact,
which in turn promotes interpersonal liking
3. Sustained close contact breaks down stereotypes
Sustained close contact may reduce
prejudice and stereotyping because:
Intergroup contact is more likely to reduce
prejudice when in-group and out-group
members occupy positions of ______________________
____________________'s (1933-1984) study of
obedience to authority is the most famous experiment in social
psychology; revealed how the majority of
people obey authority, even when
authority figures demand immoral
secondary groups that
are created to achieve goals efficiently
1. Utilitarian organizations
2. Coercive organizations
3. Normative organizations
Three types of formal organizations include:
organizations where people join in
pursuit of material rewards (companies, corps, work places)
distinguished by involuntary
membership (prison, asylums,
associations in which people pursue
goals they consider morally
worthwhile (Red Cross, United Way)
classic example of a formal organization; most efficient form of social organization to achieve goals
The reason for the advance of bureaucratic
organization is its purely __________________ superiority
over any other form of organization.
1. Governed by impersonal rules &
procedures applied universally to
everyone in an organization.
2. Made up of technically qualified experts
who do specific tasks (i.e. a division of
3. Defined by a hierarchy of authority.
4. Authority is vested in qualifications, skill,
seniority, and experience—not in personal
characteristics (the position holds power
rather than an individual person).
5. Personal property is separate from the
6. Written rules/documents/official records
define appropriate conduct.
6 Key elements to bureaucracies:
Who noted that bureaucracies
are highly rationalized (calculated)
an ongoing process in
which social interaction and institutions
become increasingly governed by
methodical procedures and calculable
____________________'s McDonaldization of Society
(1993) applies Weber's theories of
rationalization to the modern world.
refers to the process by which the
principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming to
dominate more and more sectors of society.
A "McDonaldized" world is a highly
rationalized world, operating under the
represents the best means to
achieve an end, or the optimum method
for getting from one point to another.
represents the emphasis on
quantitative elements of social life, or the
desire to understand in exact terms
benefits vs. losses (i.e. time and costs); emphasis on ____________________ generally
benefits the capitalist over the consumer
represents the assurance
that products and services will be the
same over time; The emphasis on ______________________ in society has
created new interaction rituals
represents the substitution of
nonhuman for human technology; Human technologies are ___________________ by people
(e.g. a screwdriver); nonhuman technologies
____________ people (e.g. the assembly line)
A controlled environment leads to a predictable
True or False?