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Adobe Certified Associate - Photoshop
Terms in this set (93)
The purpose of content in an image
An image can be created for many different reasons and in different media for print or digital publication. Images can convey information and data to help viewers learn facts and understand ideas.
Kinds of projects
Purely commercial, illustrate the user experience for apps and websites, prototypes, also called wireframes, of interactive experiences
The target audience for images
is usually closely related to the purpose of the image
Determine the audience's needs
based on their age, location, gender, education level, occupation, ethnicity, and other factors
A well designed image
Must take into account the audience and its needs
Audience needs are
also dependent on the context of viewing, brand guidelines and regulations, client's goals
A designer should take time to
understand the purpose, audience and audience needs for images right at the start of the project
Refers to the laws and practices that protect the rights of authors of creative works.
Three requirements to be copyrighted
1) copyrightable subject matter 2) original work or variation of existing work that is unique, 3) has fixed, tangible form.
Author of copyrighted work
1) person who created the work, or 2) company that hired person for work, or 3) person or a company who purchased the copyright from the previous owner.
An agreement in which the copyright holder gives you the permission to use their creative work.
Content of a license
Granted by an authority to allow for a particular usage; different kinds of licenses and their terms can vary.
If you use a copyrighted work without permission and if the copyright holder has registered their work with the Copyright Office, they can sue you.
When is a work copyrighted?
Upon its creation, it is automatically copyrighted.
The Ⓒ states that the copyright holder is asserting the rights of copyright but is not required.
Content that can be used freely without paying any money or entering into any license agreement.
works created before 1923 are expired and now part of the public domain. For works published after 1977, if the work was written by a single author, the copyright will not expire until 70 years after the author's death.
Non profit that offers a variety of copyright licenses with different terms that authors and artists can use.
Not covered by copyright
Short phrases, facts, ideas, or theories.
What is a project?
A collective effort by a group of people to achieve a specific goal.
What is a goal?
Can be to create a new product or service or to make changes in existing products or services.
What is a project schedule?
The limited period of time under which a project is to be completed. It has a start date and an end date, and, it may include milestones to measure progress.
What are the members of a project?
Project team with a team leader. Project manager guides the project. Project sponsor oversees project with budget and resources. Vendors.
What are project stakeholders?
Stakeholders are basically everyone involved with and affected by the project, both internal and external to the organization.
1) Initiating, 2) planning, 3) project launch, 4) execution phase, 5) project completion.
Designers have to ask questions to understand their products, their customers, their marketing plans, their budget, and their schedule.
Initial contacts with clients should
articulate the goal of the project, and then a common understanding of how your design work will help to achieve that goal.
Sketches for communicating
Don't use real information in sketches and other early work that you show the client because it can be distracting. But sketches aren't supposed to be sloppy.
Agreeing on a specific target and date when that target will be met can help you and the client agree on the success of your design work.
File format used for detailed, continuous-tone raster images
Pro's of JPG
can represent millions of colors in RGB, CMYK, or grayscale. Compress photographic images into much smaller file sizes than other formats.
Con's of JPG
Lossy compression scheme - JPG artifiacts. No transparent pixels.
Raster image format for web graphics with areas of solid color, like logos cartoons and simple illustrations.
Pro's of GIF
Supports 256 colors with very small file sizes and allows for short animations.
Con's of GIF
Only 256 colors; cannot do complex images.
Similar to GIFs but in PNG-8 and PNG-24 with more bits of color.
Pro's of PNG
PNG-24 has millions of colors in RGB and grayscale. Allows for transparent background and uses lossless compression for high quality photos.
Con's of PNG
Files of PNG-24 can be larger than JPG because compression is lossless.
Standard format for commercially printed products.
Pro's of PDF
Can contain both raster and vector information, and embedded fonts. They support layers and transparency, as well as RGB, CMYK, grayscale, and spot colors. PDFs can also include interactivity in the form of bookmarks, hyperlinks, audio and video, and forms.
EPS is a file format that can include text, vectors, and raster image data. Do not support transparency. EPS files are widely supported. In terms of color mode, EPS files can be RGB, CMYK, grayscale, or 1-bit images, also sometimes called line art.
Web vs Print - File Size
When you're creating graphics for the web or devices, it's critical to keep file size as low as possible, while still maintaining the image quality that you need. File size is generally not an issue for print files.
Web vs Print - Display Size
Print documents have sizes like letter, and tabloid, and are measured in units like points, picas, inches and so on. On the other hand, if you choose the web profile, you'll get choices like 1366x768, and 1440x900. Likewise, when you create documents using the mobile or film and video profiles, you can choose from common sizes like iPad, iPhone, and HDTV. And these are all going to be measured in pixels.
DPI stands for dots per inch, and it's the measure of printer resolution (how small are the droplets of ink).
PPI refers to pixels per inch, and it's the measure of image resolution, or the pixel density in a raster image. And this is independent from the actual number of pixels in the image.
Web vs Screen - Color Modes
Screen graphics are always going to be in RGB mode, and print graphics can be in RGB, CMYK, grayscale or spot colors
Terms like, foreground and background. Color and tone. Cropping. Aspect ratio. And, the rule of thirds.
Size, position, alignment, repetition, balance, color, contrast and emphasis, proximity and grouping, texture, and white space.
Vanishing point, perspective grid, one-point perspective, and two-point perspective.
Typography is the art of formatting and arranging type in print and on screen.
Use typography to make text readable, attractive, and appropriate in the context of the rest of the design.
Typeface vs Font
Refers to the design of a set characters.
Refers to the digital file on your computer.
A feature of a typeface design. It comes from the shapes of the characters, and it refers to how easy or difficult it is for people to distinguish and recognize the various characters.
Refers to how easy or hard it is to read text based on the arrangement of the type, and there are several factors that affect readability, including point size as we've mentioned, plus line spacing, also called leading, word spacing, line length, alignment, and color.
Commonly bold and italic, but there are many others available in various typefaces, like semi-bold, condensed, extended, etc.
Refers to the space between two letters. Settings inside a font file = metric kerning. Can be controlled manually by putting your cursor between two characters and changing the kerning value. Or, optical kerning where Photoshop determines the space between letters based on their shapes.
Refers to the spacing between all the characters in a selection of text, so it can have a much bigger effect on the overall appearance of type than kerning.
The process of adjusting the colors in an image so they more accurately represent the real world colors of the subject for output in print or just onscreen.
Colors in an image are skewed in a particular way requiring correction to all colors.
Three Auto Color Corrections
Auto Tone, Auto Contrast, and Auto Color.
Attempts to remove color casts and increases overall contrast.
Aggressive in trying to remove color casts, because it neutralizes mid tone colors, so it sometimes neutralizes colors that shouldn't be neutral. Note that Auto Color does not work on CMYK images.
Increases contrast, but it does not change colors in an image, so this is not the tool to use if you're trying to correct colors.
Adjustments panels for color correction
Unlike the auto controls, you can use them to target specific areas of an image for correction. We have things like "levels," "curves," "vibrance," "hue saturation," "color balance," "photo filter," and "selective color,"
Color balance adjustment layer
Changes the overall mixture of colors in an image for generalized color correction.
Adjustments Panel - adjusting tonality (contrast) and color
For tonality (contrast) and color, click Levels or Curves.
Adjustments Panel - adjusting only color
For adjusting color, click Color Balance or Hue/Saturation.
Started out on the computer. They can be screenshots, digital paintings, illustrations, diagrams, charts and graphs.
Created by devices with sensors that can encode light and colors as digital information. These are things like cameras, mobile devices, and scanners.
Files that contain the original data captured by the devices sensors. Not processed or compressed. Allows work with color and detail that would otherwise be lost if they let the camera save data in a JPG file.
Composed of a rectangular grid of pixels. Digital paintings, photographs, or other graphics. Working in Photoshop = working with raster images. Raster images are resolution dependent.
Images that are entirely composed of vectors, like those you could create with Adobe Illustrator, are said to be resolution independent.
Turn an image into a set of pixels.
Raster image formats
Include JPG, PNG, GIF, TIFF, and PSD or native Photoshop files, though you should note that PSD files can contain both raster and vector information.
8 bit and 16 bit, or even 32 bit, the amount of detail associated with each pixel in the image.
Pros and Cons of Higher Bit Depth
Can contain much more detail, but at the cost of higher file sizes, longer processing time, and are supported by a smaller number of Photoshop features.
Contains information representing just light and dark measurements. For 8 bit mode, there are 256 possible luminance values, ranging from zero, which is black, to 255, which is white.
RGB images are composed of three channels for red, green, and blue light.
CMYK images are composed of four channels, for cyan, magenta, yellow, and black inks.
Duotone images are composed of a single channel, with two specific inks applied to the luminance values of the channel with curves.
A panel that shows the values (0-255) of each channel in an image
Made up of one more straight or curved segments connected by points. Are not made up of pixels. Can be known as paths. They have visibility on their own.
How to draw vectors in PS
Using the pen tool or any of the shape tools, like the rectangle tool, ellipse tool, polygon tool, or custom shape tool.
Make vectors visible
Formatting with fill or stroke.
Fills are colors that fill up the area inside a path or selection.
Strokes are the colors that are applied to the outline of a path or a selection.
To render an image in computer graphics simply means to generate or output an image from a set of instructions.
where you'll find commands for opening and closing documents, importing and exporting, as well as printing.
where you'll find common commands like cut, copy, and paste, undo, fill and stroke, transform, as well as the color management commands down near the bottom.
where you can go to change the color mode of an image, apply adjustments, change the image size or the canvas size.
where you'll find all the commands for working with layers. New layer, new fill, new adjustment, masks, smart objects, rasterize, group, arrange, merge & flatten.
where you can add fonts from typekit,
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