Cell Structures And Functions
Terms in this set (33)
•Found outside of the cell membrane in plant cells and bacteria cells only
•Contains cellulose that provides support and protection
Cell or Plasma Membrane
•Outer membrane of the cell that control movement of substances in and out of the cell
•Double layer (bi-layer)
•In plants and bacteria, this is within the cell wall
•Gel-like mixture inside cells
•Surrounded by cell membrane
•Contains cell structures that carry out specific jobs
•Provides a medium for chemical reactions to take place
•Region of the cytoplasm where chromosomal DNA is located
•Singular, circular chromosome
•Smaller circles of DNA called plasmids are also located in cytoplasm
•Each cell contains thousands
•Found on endoplasmic reticulum and floating throughout the cell cytoplasm
•Directs cell activities
•Contains the genetic material (DNA)
•Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane
•Surrounds nucleus, separates DNA from cytoplasm
•Made of two layers
•Openings called pores allow some materials to enter and leave nucleus
•Genetic material (DNA) of cell in its non-dividing state
•Contain instructions for traits and characteristics
•Dark-staining structure in the nucleus
•Makes ribosomes that make proteins
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
•Network of continuous sacs, studded with ribosomes
•Internal delivery system of the cell
•Manufactures, processes, and transports proteins for export from cell
•Continuous with nuclear envelope
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
•Similar in appearance to rough ER, but without ribosomes
•Produces lipids, involved in carbohydrate metabolism, and detoxification of drugs and poisons
•Protein 'packaging plant'
•Modifies proteins and lipids made by the ER and prepares them for export from the cell
•Encloses digestive enzymes into membranes to form lysosomes (transport pods)
•Digestive 'plant' for proteins, fats, and carbohydrates
•Digestive enzymes break down cellular waste and debris
•Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal
•Cell breaks down if lysosome explodes
•Membrane bound organelles that are the site of cellular respiration (use glucose to produce cell energy, ATP)
•Active cells like muscles have more mitochondria
•Membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removal
•Contains water solution
•Plants have large central vacuoles that store water and nutrients needed by the cell
•Help support the shape of the cell
•Usually found in plant cells
•Contains green pigment chlorophyll
•Where photosynthesis takes place
•Produces plant food (sugars) and oxygen gas
Cilia and Flagella
•External appendages from the cell membrane that aid in locomotion (movement) of the cell
•Cilia also help to move substance past the membrane
•Found only in animal cells
•Made of bundles of microtubules
•Help in organizing cell division
•The cell's skeleton
•Made of microtubules and filaments
•Give the cell shape, strength, and ability to move
What is a cell?
The smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions.
Who was Anton van Leeuwenhoek?
Scientist who first discovered cells by looking through a simple microscope.
What did Robert Hook first use to view thinly sliced cork cells?
A compound microscope.
What is a compound microscope?
A compound microscope uses a series of lenses to magnify in steps.
What did Matthias Schleiden identify in the 1830s?
He identified plant cells and concluded that all plants are made of cells.
What are the three parts of the cell theory?
1. All living things are made up of one or more cells
2. Cells are the smallest working unit of all living things
3. All cells come from pre-existing cells through cell division
Composed of one cell
Composed of many cells
Cells that do not have a nucleus or organelles (bacteria)
Cells that have a nucleus and organelles (plants, fungi, animal, protists)
Cell structures that have a specific function and are surrounded by a membrane that are found in eukaryotes only
What did Louis Pastore do?
Did an experiment involving beakers without bacteria that disproved spontaneous generation.
Which increases faster? Cell volume or surface area.