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Key Concepts:

Terms in this set (61)

-A symbolism device where abstract concept is conveyed with aid of corporeal object or idea
-Suggests a meaning via metaphoric examples
-Written in the form of fables, parables, poems, stories
-Purpose is to tell a story that have literal and figurative meaning

Dante's the Divine comedy - In Inferno, Dante is on a pilgrimage to find his own purpose in life. His character represents every man. Virgil guides him and is seen as reason and wisdom, what Dante is looking for.

John Bunyun's Pilgrim's Progress - spiritual allegory.
Ordinary sinner leaves the City of Destruction and travels to Celestial City where God resides, for salvation. Finds Faithful companion who helps. Hypocrisy, Mr. Worldly Wiseman, Obstinate, and Pliable discourage him or stop him. Hopeful's faith carries him. Road to heaven not that easy is moral. To pay any price for salvation. Man full of sin but does not stop him from achieving glory.

a figure of speech in which abstract ideas and principles are described in terms of characters, figures and events. It can be employed in prose and poetry to tell a story with a purpose of teaching an idea and a principle or explaining an idea or a principle. The objective of its use is to preach some kind of a moral lesson. It is a complete narrative which involves characters, and events that stand for an abstract idea or an event, likened to an extended metaphor. Faith in Nathaniel Hawthorne's "Young Goodman Brown". Faith is not only Brown's wife, but she represents his faith in religion. When Brown believes his Faith is lost, he believes his wife is in the woods with the other townspeople or people of the church performing pagan rituals. This represents his faith in man and his faith in his church.
-Brief and indirect reference to a person, place, thing or idea of historical, cultural, literary, or political significance.
-Does not use details
-Passing comment
-Writer expects reader to spot the allusion and grasp importance
-Most based on assumption there is a body of knowledge shared by author and reader and reader will understand the reference
-Latin allusio meaning a play on words or game.
-Allusions to figures in bible and mythology are common
-T.S. Eliot and James Joyce used obscure and complex allusions few would understand
-Can enhance a text by providing further meaning
-Can make an ironic comment on one thing by comparing it to something dissimilar.
-Shared knowledge changes
-Reveals unspoken assumptions, biases, of author and reader
-Enables writers to simplify complex ideas and emotions

Conrad's Heart of Darkness - the two knitting women Marlow sees alludes to Moirae or Fates in Greek mythology. They increase his anxiety by gazing at him. The eerie look suggests they know what will happen, yet don't care. The thread they knit represents human life and foreshadows Marlow's journey in the Dark Continent.

A brief and indirect reference to a person, place, thing or idea of historical, cultural, literary or political significance. It does not describe in detail the person or thing to which it refers. It is just a passing comment and the writer expects the reader to possess enough knowledge to spot it and grasp its importance in a text. Connects with established literary traditions to enrich the work. James Joyce Ulysses discussion of the Catholic mass to critique the church, its customs, and Ireland.
-Prominent character has characteristics opposite to conventional hero
-Typically clumsy, unsolicited, unskilled, has both good and bad qualities
-Usually given most prominent role after protagonist
-An amalgamation of both good and evil
-Combines two extremes in one person and shows real human nature
-Skeptical of overly righteous and upright hero and conventional antagonist is something we do not witness in society so it is removed from reality. Suffering and sorrow part of life, so we relate to character with good and bad traits
-They have imperfections such as selfishness, ignorance, bigotry
-Lack courage, physical prowess, fortitude
-Feel helpless in world they have no control
-Amorality, greed, violent tendencies, tempered with identifiable traits like confusion, self hatred
-Blur lines between classic protagonist and antagonist
-Possibly noble but ambiguous motive pursued by the belief that the ends justify the means

Jay Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald in the Great Gatsby.

Gatsy is bright and glamous, has charisma and power, but built success on empire of lies. Is a bootlegger, imposter, born James Gatz. Dishonest but cannot blame him for all the lies. Greatest sin, he dreams big. Strives for wealth, for a woman.

Jonathan Swift's Gulliver

Victor Hugo's Jean Valjean

They suffered all their lives but are not the kind of character one can look up to.

A protagonist that lacks the attributes that make a heroic figure (The protagonist is generally admired for his bravery, strength, charm, ingenuity etc. while this character is typically clumsy, unsolicited, and unskilled and has both good and bad qualities.) Instead of having two different people to represent two extremes, this character combines both into one person and thus shows the real human nature. Ex. Satan in Paradise Lost. Jay Gatsby in The Great Gatsby Jay Gatsby is a young man who grew up in poverty. He became famously wealthy through illegal means: organized crime, distributing prohibited alcohol and trading in stolen securities.His re-invention of himself eventually shows that he is an innocent, idealistic young man. His ideals of wealth and of his love, Daisy, are bound to disappoint because they could never live up to his dreams.
-Un-rhyming verse written in iambic pentameter
-Consistent meter with 10 syllables in each line
-Unstressed syllables are followed by stressed ones and five of which are stressed but do not rhyme
-Aka un-rhymed iambic pentameter
-Has no fixed number of lines
-Has conventional meter that is used for verse drama and long narrative poems
-Often used in descriptive and reflective poems and dramatic monologues
-Can be composed in any kind of meter, such as iamb, trochee, spondee, dactyl
-Types of blank verse: iamb pentameter, trochee, anapest, dactyl

Mending Walls by Robert Frost

Something there is that doesn't
Love a wall.
That sends the frozen-ground-
swell under it,
And spills the upper boulders in
The sun;

*This poem has no proper rhyme scheme
*10 syllables in each line
*Iambic pentameter
*Only first line is written in trochee pattern

Introduced by Henry Howard Earl of Surry in the 16th century version of The Aeneid, this term denotes a literary device defined as un-rhyming verse written in iambic pentameter. In poetry and prose, it has a consistent meter with 10 syllables in each line (pentameter); where, unstressed syllables are followed by stressed ones and five of which are stressed but do not rhyme. It is also known as un-rhymed iambic pentameter. Features : 1. has no fixed number of lines.2. It has a conventional meter that is used for verse drama and long narrative poems.3. It is often used in descriptive and reflective poems and dramatic monologues — the poems in which a single character delivers his thoughts in the form of a speech. 4. It can be composed in any kind of meter, such as iamb, trochee, spondee and dactyl.
Closest to everyday English speech.
Rhyme scheme da-dum-da-dum-da-dum-da-dum-da-dum.
Example Milton's Paradise Lost
-German Marxist playwright and poet Bertolt Brecht sought to discover ways of dramatizing Marx's insights into the operation of capitalism, creating a dialectical theatre
-Employed devices in staging, music, acting, telling of parable to confound audience with comfortable identification with characters and story as encouraged by conventional realism or naturalism
-Intentions were to induce critical attitude to dispel passivity necessary to maintaining conditions producing alienation under capitalism
-Better term called de-alienation
-Related to similar devices such as defamiliarization and estrangement
-Theory indebted to theories developed in Soviet cinema in 1920s.
-There are those that think the alienation effect is everywhere now, in advertising, mass TV programming, cinema and theater
-Skepticism derives from arguments about loss of distinction between image and real in postmodern society
-Suggest the idea of a deliberate break with those traditional values, verisimilitude, unity of action, audience participation, tragic catharsis, the imaginative suspension of disbelief
-Brecht saw deeply bound up with hegemony of bourgeois, aesthetic, social and political institutions
-Argued need for revolutionary theater to disrupt and subvert routine habits of response in order to break the realist illusion
-For example, on stage commentary or actors speaking out of character
-Juxtaposition of incongruous styles
-Brecht's Coriolanus is a commentary on moral and political issues raised by East German workers rising of 1953.
-Can also entail staging of didactic parables

Rejects method acting. Calls for psychological realism.A performing arts concept playing in such a way that the audience was hindered from simply identifying itself with the characters in the play. Acceptance or rejection of their actions and utterances was meant to take place on a conscious plane, instead of, as hitherto, in the audience's subconscious. The distancing effect is achieved by the way the "artist never acts as if there were a fourth wall besides the three surrounding him [...] The audience can no longer have the illusion of being the unseen spectator at an event which is really taking place". Examples of such techniques include explanatory captions or illustrations projected on a screen; actors stepping out of character to lecture, summarize, or sing songs; and stage designs that do not represent any locality but that, by exposing the lights and ropes, keep the spectators aware of being in a theatre. The audience's degree of identification with characters and events is presumably thus controlled, and it can more clearly perceive the "real" world reflected in the drama. Started in the 1920s. Making present world feel strange. Beckett's Waiting for Godot. Caryl Churchill Cloud Nine.
-Mikhail Bakhtin
-Resembles parody but more political
-Serves to critique and subvert norms of political, social and cultural behavior
-Serves to critique rules of established order, attack, deconstruct, refuse to obey the rules, orders, systems of authority, allows for critique of established laws of given society
-Involves providing public venue through standards, norms and laws of governing cultures are questioned, reworked, tested, and countered
-Abolishes hierarchies, levels of social classes and created other life free from conventional rule
-Finds emblem in grotesque, pleasure-seeking human body: fat and fleshy, eating, drinking, fornicating, defecating to excess
-Valorization of Eros and life force
-Notion of bisexuality, transvesticism, as release form burden of social sex roles
-Janus face ambiguity and ambivalence
-Gay relativity
-Valorizes obscene, nonsensical, market place speech, linguistic creativity of common people
-Participatory spectacle, a pageant without footlights, erases boundaries between spectator and performer
-World is turned upside down, daily life suspended
-Can indicate excitement, revelry, danger, topsy-turviness to way the world works
-Social hierarchies of everyday life, solemnities, pieties, etiquettes, ready made truths, are profaned and overturned by normally suppressed voices and energies
-Fools become wise, kings become beggars,
-Opposites are mingled

A Confederacy of Dunces by John Kennedy Toole
*Ignatius J. Reilly is a huge, obese, fractious, fastidious, Don Quixote of the French Quarter. Gargantuan bloats, goof off, glutton on a war against everybody, homosexuals, Freud, protestants.

When the world is turned upside-down, reverses social hierarchy. Characterized by the presence of the grotesque, paradoy, billingsgate, and travesty. Bakhtin's theory that was a study of Rabelais. Resembles parody but more political. Serves to critique rules of established order, attack, deconstruct, refuse to obey the rules, orders, systems of authority, allows for critique of established laws of given society. Governing cultures are questioned, reworked, tested, and countered. Erases boundaries between spectator and performing. August Strindberg's Miss Julie. Takes place during Midsummer's eve. Her relationship with Jean, the valet, is a reversal of social norms. Very Post-modern. Theater about theater. Memory is important. Linear time is suspended. Perception is reality.
-Rejects absolute interpretations
-Stress ambiguities and contradictions
-Grew from Saussure who said many indo-european languages create meaning by binary opposites with one or two words arbitrarily given positive connotations and the other given negative
Assert binary tendency is endemic to all words and literature
-Complicate literary interpretations by making heroes and villains have overlapping traits or exist only because of the presence of the other
-Deny the absolute value of literature
-Assert all literature is incapable of offering constructed meaning external to the prison house of language
-Symptomatic of postmodernism
-Postmodern writers seeks to emphasize conventions of storytelling, break away from realism, cause and effect, traditional plot making it deconstructed

Jacques Derrida- reading practice that calls us to question traditional forms. 1960s Grammatology. Nothing outside the text. Language is ambiguous. offered a powerful critique of the possibility of creating detached, scientific metalanguages and was thus categorized (along with kindred efforts) as "post-structuralist." Treated works of art not as the harmonious fusion of literal and figurative meanings but as instances of the intractable conflicts between meanings of different types. They generally examined the individual work not as a self-contained artifact but as a product of relations with other texts or discourses, literary and nonliterary. Finally, these readings placed special emphasis on the ways in which the works themselves offered implicit critiques of the categories that critics used to analyze them. In the United States in the 1970s and '80s, this played a major role in the animation and transformation of literary studies by literary theory (often referred to simply as "theory"), which was concerned with questions about the nature of language, the production of meaning, and the relationship between literature and the numerous discourses that structure human experience and its histories. There is nothing outside the text; therefore, one cannot evaluate, criticize, or construe a meaning for a text by reference to anything external to it.
Gone with the Wind- was Scarlett raped by Rhett Butler?
-Originates from Greek meaning a dispersion (scattering) Jews living dispersed among the gentiles after the captivity. Jewish Christians residing outside Palestine
-Means dispersion of people, language, or culture that was formerly in one place
-Literature produced about people or language disinherited, but writing in another language
-Indian writings in UK, Canada, Australia for example
-The dispersal signifies the location of a fluid human autonomous space involving a complex set of negotiation and exchange between nostalgia and desire for Homeland
-Spoke for persons for minority rights and their people back home
-Transacting with the new sense of place
-A new unknown geographical space
-Elements of trauma, exile, and nostalgia
-Ethnographic approach, focus on different roots and routes, pointing to politico-economic conditions and diversity of histories that prompted transnational movements
-Expatriate minority communities who share common characteristics
*Ancestors have been dispersed to a foreign region
*Retain a collective memory, vision, myth about homeland and its location, history and achievements
*Not fully accepted by their lost society
*Fell partly alienated and offended
*Regard ancestral home as true to where their descendants would eventually return
*Commit to maintenance or restoration of homeland, its safety, and prosperity
*Continue to relate personally to homeland
*Ethno-communal consciousness and solidarity defined by the relationship
*Colonialism - permanent movement of Europeans all over the world
*Enslavement of Africans produced large bodies of people in India, West Indies,

Diasporic literature
*Based on idea of homeland from where displacement occurs
*Provides narratives of harsh journeys
*Provides accounts of another sense of place away from homeland
*Influence of homeland on behavior either adopting or rejecting new cultural codes
*Learn how they get used to living elsewhere
*Lamentation of losing one's language, friends

Satan fall from heaven. Humankind's separation from Garden.

19th Century to describe the migration of the Jews. Movement, migration, or scattering of people away from an established or ancestral homeland. Studying this type of literature means to pay attention to how the old country, land, or nation still has some claim or hold on those who have migrated to another place, and this may include communities who were enslaved, those who chose to immigrate for reasons of labor or trade, those who were dispersed for political or imperial reasons, as well as those who are in cultural exile--a more loose term describing individuals or communities who are in some sense "transnational," living between, alongside, or in several communities. More specifically, taking this approach to what is often called "ethnic" literature calls for the language and theory of postcolonialism to be applied to the immigrant experience. Maintaining/alterning identity and culture. Example: Things Fall Apart Chinua Achebe.
-Everyday behavior
-Holds the idea of the stage as an environment
-Late 19th century
-Social and political ideas, playwrighting and some spectacular theatrical innovations helped bring realism to theatre.
-Life is a sewer became an outcry with the dawn of industrialization and moving to city
-Plot contains secrets known to audience, but withheld from characters
-Secret is revealed with climax
-Protagonist dignity restored, receives reward
-Careful attention to exposition, usually first entire first act minimum.
-Contrived entrances, woman walking in on her son with the maid, exits, and props (letters) to increase suspense.
-Hero has series of successes and failures with antagonist, expected and logical reversals
-Scenes where antagonist learns facts that can hurt the protagonist
-Protagonist learns later antagonist has such knowledge
-The misunderstanding is known to audience but not the characters to increase suspense
-Denouement is believable and logical
-Each act repeats the general action pattern of the entire play

Realistic Playwrights:
Henrik Ibsen (problem plays)
George Bernard Shaw
Emile Zola (Naturalist)

dates from the late 19th Century --- specifically with the plays of Ibsen like A Doll's House and Hedda Gabler. Besides a realistic set, common dialogue (no speeches or solilioquies) and motivated action, Ibsen wanted to make the stage a vehicle for the discussion of modern-day problems. A Doll's House and Hedda Gabler deal with women's liberation. Combining the three key innovations of "colloquial dialogue, objectivity, and tightness of plot." His creation of settings, characters and narratives that were recognizable and relatable to his audiences was a monumental breakthrough. The plays tapped into the intelligentsia's discomfort with the hypocrisy between conventional moral values and the foundations and consequences of a post-Darwin, industrial-capitalist society.
-Written as a series of documents
-Letters, diary entries, newspaper clippings, recordings, blogs
-From Greek, epistole, meaning letter
-Add greater realism to a story
-Mimics the workings of real life
-Able to demonstrate differing points of view without recourse
-3 types:
*Monologic - giving the letters of only one character
*Dialogic - giving the letters of two characters,
*Polylogic - giving the letters of three or more, Bram Stoker's Dracula. The simultaneous but separate correspondences of the heroines and the villains creating dramatic tension.

John Barth, Letters 1979, author interacts with characters from other novels

The Color Purple, Alice Walker, 1982

a novel told through the medium of letters written by one or more of the characters. Originating with Samuel Richardson's Pamela; or, Virtue Rewarded (1740), the story of a servant girl's victorious struggle against her master's attempts to seduce her, it was one of the earliest forms of novel to be developed and remained one of the most popular up to the 19th century. reliance on subjective points of view makes it the forerunner of the modern psychological novel.The advantages of the novel in letter form are that it presents an intimate view of the character's thoughts and feelings without interference from the author and that it conveys the shape of events to come with dramatic immediacy. Also, the presentation of events from several points of view lends the story dimension and verisimilitude. Though the method was most often a vehicle for sentimental novels, it was not limited to them. An example is The Color Purple by Alice Walker. The letters structure Celie's identity, voice, and sense of self.
-Form of work that deals with information or events that are not real
-Imaginary and theoretical
-Invented by author
-Novels, short stories, poetry
-Any narrative work whose creator does not claim responsibility for the work's faithfulness to reality
-A narrative not guaranteed to present only true descriptions, real people, and actual events.

The six major elements of fiction are character, plot, point of view, setting, style, and theme.
*Character -- A figure in a literary work (personality, gender, age, etc). E. M. Forester makes a distinction between flat and round characters. Flat characters are types or caricatures defined by a single idea of quality, whereas round characters have the three-dimensional complexity of real people.
*Plot -- the major events that move the action in a narrative. It is the sequence of major events in a story, usually in a cause-effect relation.
*Point of View -- the vantage point from which a narrative is told. A narrative is typically told from a first-person or third-person point of view. In a narrative told from a first-person perspective, the author tells the story through a character who refers to himself or herself as "I." Third -person narratives come in two types: omniscient and limited. An author taking an omniscient point of view assumes the vantage point of an all-knowing narrator able not only to recount the action thoroughly and reliably but also to enter the mind of any character in the work or any time in order to reveal his or her thoughts, feelings, and beliefs directly to the reader. An author using the limited point of view recounts the story through the eyes of a single character (or occasionally more than one, but not all or the narrator would be an omniscient narrator).
*Setting -- That combination of place, historical time, and social milieu that provides the general background for the characters and plot of a literary work. The general setting of a work may differ from the specific setting of an individual scene or event.
*Style -- The author's type of diction (choice of words), syntax (arrangement of words), and other linguistic features of a work.
*Theme(s) -- The central and dominating idea (or ideas) in a literary work. The term also indicates a message or moral implicit in any work of art.

Even when the author claims the story is true, there may be significant additions and subtractions form the true story to make it more suitable for storytelling.

Tim O'Brien's, The Things They Carried

It's a word specifically used by Borges to refer to his kind of stories that are fiction framed as essays--Pierre Menard is a good example, it's full of footnotes and sub-headings, etc., all constructed to look like a literary essay, but the whole thing is fiction. It's like a blurring of genres. Like all Borges's stories, they're designed to be short and concise, too. The Spanish word is usually retained when referring to these stories in English, to signify that it's not the same meaning as fiction in general.
Joyce's Ulysses- allusions to prior works, mythology, common words, and different genres.
"La biblioteca de Babel" in Ficciones by Borges
-Theory dealing with structural purposes of a particular text
-Study of a text without taking into account any outside influence
-Rejects notions of culture, societal influence, authorship, content
-Focuses on modes, genres, discourse, forms
-Refers to approach that analyzes, interprets, evaluates inherent features of text, including grammar, syntax, meter, tropes
-Reduces importance of historical, biographical, cultural context
-Early 20th century, 20s and 30s, as reaction against Romanticist theory which centered on the artist and individual creative genius
-Put text in spotlight
-Indebted to form and other works that preceded it
-See literary work as object of its own
-Concentrate analysis on interplay and relationships between verbal elements
-Study form instead of content
-Seek to be objective
-Pay attention to literary devices used and patterns these devices establish
-Suggest everyday language is stale and unimaginative
-Literariness has capacity to overturn common and expected patterns, grammar, storyline, and rejuvenate language
-New Criticism most famous type of formalism
-Chicago School formalist when they critic work on individual basis

Florished in the 40s and 50s. Objective rather and subjective.
Allied at one point to the Russian Futurists and opposed to sociological criticism. placed an "emphasis on the medium" by analyzing the way in which literature, especially poetry, was able to alter artistically or "make strange" common language so that the everyday world could be "defamliarized." They stressed the importance of form and technique over content and looked for the specificity of literature as an autonomous verbal art. They studied the various functions of "literariness" as ways to separate poetry and fictional narrative from other forms of discourse. attempts to treat each work as its own distinct piece, free from its environment, era, and even author. This point of view developed in reaction to "...forms of 'extrinsic' criticism that viewed the text as either the product of social and historical forces or a document making an ethical statement" (699). assume that the keys to understanding a text exist within "the text itself," (..."the battle cry of the New Critical effort..." and thus focus a great deal on, you guessed it, form (Tyson 118).
Allen Ginsberg - Footnote to Howl. Changes persona when speaking to the citizens of America.
-Predominance of one state or social group over others
-Post colonial criticism questions the role of the western literary canon and western history as dominant forms of knowledge making written from perspective of first world cultures.
-Authors included in canon often reinforce colonial hegemonic ideology
-To combat cultural hegemony, working class depend upon intellectuals

-Antonio Gramsci developed theory as an analysis of economic class to comprehend social class.
-Proposes that cultural norms of society, imposed by ruling class (bourgeois cultural hegemony) must not be perceived as natural
-Must be investigated to discover philosophic roots as instruments of social class domination so proletariat can create their own working class culture which can address their social and economic needs.

Marxist philosophy describes hegemony as the domination of a culturally diverse society by the ruling class who manipulate the culture of that society, the beliefs, explanations, perceptions, values, and mores, to ruling class view becomes the worldview imposed and accepted as cultural norm that justifies the social, political, and economic status quo as natural, inevitable, perpetual and beneficial for everyone, rather than as artificial social constructs that benefit only the ruling class.

Joseph Conrad - Heart of Darkness
Post colonial theorists disagree Heart of Darkness is not an effective critique of colonial behavior. Chinua Achebe said condemnation of European is based on definition of Africans as savages.

From the Greek for 'authority' or leader. originally signified the dominance of one state over another, whether this dominance is acceded to and is therefore formal, or is the consequence of arbitrary imposition. Marxism extended the definition of rule or domination to relations between social classes, and especially to definitions of a ruling class. The ruling or dominate culture uses their power to use lesser culture for their own monetary or social advantage. An example is Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness. The acquisition of ivory in the Congo to the English.Since the 1930s, this term has most often been associated with the Italian Marxist thinker Antonio Gramsci who argue that a social class achieves a predominant influence and power by succeeding in making its ideological views so persuasive - through dominating view such as institutionalized education, the study of English Literature, Western Science, Christianity - that the subordinate classes unwillingly accept and participate in their own oppression. It implies an openness to negotiation and exchange, as well as conflict between classes.
-Anything that represents something that is real but yet never really existed
-Disneyworld created out of nothing. Gives illusion of grandeur. Cinderella's castle is a large façade.
-Quality of being real or having an actual existence
-Having objective existence
-To exist as having a place in the domain of reality
-Definitions are circular, a set of signifiers reflecting back at each other lacking the grounding necessary to render meaning
-Almost all words and signs are only able to refer back towards the internal exchange of other signs in order to produce a theoretical anchor
-A condition in which the distinction between real and imaginary explodes
-Simulation is characterized by a blending of reality and representation. -No clear indication where the former stops and latter begins
-Simulacrum is a copy with no original, an image without representation
-Baudrillard mapped transformation from representation to simulacrum in four successive phases of the image, the last has no relation to any reality whatsoever, it is its own simulacrum
-Frederic Jameson one of the conditions of late capitalism is mass reproduction of simulacra creating a world with an unreality and a free floating absence of the referent
-Common themes: new media technologies, loss of the materiality, the increase in information production, rise of consumerism, reliance upon god or center in western thought
-Simulations of reality replace the real, producing a giant simulacrum, disconnected from an earlier reality, which is hyperreality
-Fundamental quality is Sausurre's model for the sign
-Mass of simulacrum of sings become meaningless, functioning in groundless, hollow indicators that self replicate in endless reproduction.
-Signified, concept of the real; signifier, a sound-image
-Baudrillard claims Saussure's model arbitrary by advent of hyperreality. The two poles of signified and signifier implode destroying meaning, causing all signs to be unhinged and point back to nonexisting reality
-Social performance is a copy that instantaneously reproduces itself by being viewed thus disseminated to others who will incorporate in their own actions

Used in semiotics and postmodern philosophy to describe an inability of consciousness to distinguish reality from a simulation of reality, especially in technological advanced post-modern societies. a way of characterizing what our consciousness defines as "real" in a world where a multitude of media can radically shape and filter an original event or experience, such as the simulacra according to Baudrillard "Procession of Simulacra". Essentially, this describes the interaction with simulated forms or representations of reality (such as literature, film, television, social networking, etc) which come off as more real than our actual mundane experiences because of their contrived yet somehow believable nature. Simulation becomes more real than the thing itself.
Wilde's dorian Grey-portrait.
-Use language of common speech
-Avoid clichés
-Create new rhythms to express new moods
-Absolute freedom of subject
-Create concrete, firm images
-Strive for concentration as essence of poetry
-Suggest rather than state
-Early 20th century
-Devoted to clarity of expression through the use of visual images
-Launched in 1912 by Pound, Hilda Doolittle
-Sprang from ideas by T.E. Hulme who based poetry on absolutely accurate presentation of its subject with no excess verbiage
-Employ always the exact word
-Reaction against flabby abstract language of Romanticism
-Direct treatment of the thing whether subjective or objective
-To use absolutely no word that does not contribute to the presentation
-As regarding rhythm, to compose in sequence of the musical phrase, not in sequence of the metronome
-Three years had run its course 1914-1917

Ezra Pound - A Station of the Metro...The apparition of these faces in the crowd; petals on a wet, black bough

-That which presents an intellectual and emotional complex in an instant of time

William Carlos Williams

D.H. Lawrence

Amy Lowell

movement included English and American poets in the early twentieth century who wrote free verse and were devoted to "clarity of expression through the use of precise visual images." A strand of modernism. A poetry based on absolutely accurate presentation of its subject with no excess verbiage. The first was "To use the language of common speech, but to employ always the exact word, not the nearly-exact, nor the merely decorative word." aimed to replace muddy abstractions with exactness of observed detail, apt metaphors, and economy of language. Example Ezra Pound's "In a Station of the Metro". Pound defined it as:
I. Direct treatment of the "thing," whether subjective or objective. II. To use absolutely no word that does not contribute to the presentation.
III. As regarding rhythm: to compose in sequence of the musical phrase, not in sequence of the metronome.
-Components of a text that require the reader to make their own decisions about the text's meaning
-Does not provide full closure
-Still questions to be answered
-Language is such that the author's intention is not known
-Principle of uncertainty invoked to deny the existence of any final or determinate meaning that could summize the text
-Belief not possible to decide what a word means when used in a certain circumstance
-Text must remain open to interpretation
-Does not mean decisions about meaning cannot be made
-No final official judgment
-Meanings drawn are partial and provisional
-Open to further interpretation
-The multiplicity of possible interpretations of given textual elements
-Term from deconstruction theorists

Wolfgang Iser. Can be simply defined as when components of a text require the reader to make their own decisions about the text's meaning. This can occur if the text's ending does not provide full closure and there are still questions to be answered, or when "the language is such that the author's original intention is not known". Baldick further describes the concept as "a principle of uncertainty invoked to deny the existence of any final or determinate meaning that could bring to an end the play of meaning between the elements of a text". the belief that it is not possible to decide entirely what a word means when used in a certain circumstance, so the meaning of the whole text must remain open to interpretation. related to deconstruction theory. For example, Miguel de Cervantes's Don Quioxte is often treated as a postmodern text by readers because of its postmodern elements, but it was not written in that time period. In this instance, the reader must make the judgment of how to treat the text.
-Borrowing phrases and concepts from other works in your own
-Denotes the way in which texts gain meaning through their referencing or evocation of other texts
-Developed by poststructuralist Julia Kristeva in 1960s
-Response to Saussure's claim that signs gain meaning through structure in a particular text
-Kristeva said readers always influenced by other texts
-When text is read in light of another text, all assumptions and effects of other text give a new meaning and influence the way of interpreting the original text
-Serves as a subtheme
-Like double narrative in allegories
-Foregrounds notions of relationality, interconnectedness and interdependence in modern cultural life
-Not possible to speak of originality or uniqueness of the artistic object since every artistic object is assembled from bits of already existing art
-2 types -
*Interability - the repeatability of certain textual fragments. Includes not only explicit allusions, references, quotations, but unannounced sources, influences, clichés, phrases in the air, traditions. Every text composed of traces of other texts that help constitute its meaning.
*Presupposition - assumptions a text makes about its referent, its readers, its context, not explicitly there. Once upon a time implies a fictional narrative.

James Joyce - Ulysses retelling of Odyssey.

Hemingway - For Whom the Bell Tolls from John Donne

Post-Structuralism. Coined and popularized by Julia Kristeva. Describes how texts refer to, depend on, and echo each other by means of citation, allusion, repetition or transformation of the formal, substantive features of earlier texts, or participation is literary conventions and procedures. Applies to any and all texts. Texts become the point of intersection. A text is not an isolated phenomenon but a transposition of signs, discourses, and texts with overlaid meanings. A feature of post-modernism's cynicism towards authority. Places emphasis on the reader's importance in decoding the text. The writer is an orchestrator rather than originator.
-Regional movement seeking to reconcile the traditionalist white society of the antebellum south they admire
-Forms a minority viewpoint to commemorate the civil war.
-Portrayed the Confederacy's cause as noble and most of its leaders exemplars of old fashioned chivalry
-Proponents condemned Reconstruction that followed the Civil War
-Widely promoted by Neo-Confederate movement
-Theme helped white Southerners adjust to their new status and move forward into the New South
-Document and defend the Confederate Cause, to recall the antebellum mores
-Focusing on military sacrifice, rather than grievances regarding the North
-Depicting slavery as benevolent
-Reinforced notion that Jim Crow was a proper solution to racial tensions
-Glorifying the common soldier
-Portraying the south as solid
-United America arose pure, guiltless and assured that the deep conflicts had been imposed by otherworldly forces.
-The message: even when Americans lose, they win.
-Southerners were portrayed as noble, heroic, living in a doomed romantic society

Gone With the Wind, Margaret Mitchell, 1936
Did its ideological work. sealed fascination with nostalgia of southern plantation homes and ordered hierarchy. Slaves are family, mystical bond between landowner and rich soil slaves worked. Elitist perspective. Grand theme: war, love, death, conflicts of race, class, gender, generation.

The term swiftly came into common use as a reference not only to military defeat, but defeat of the "southern way of life" -a phrase that generally referred to the South of the antebellum period, when plantation slavery was still intact. Since the late nineteenth century, the term has been used to describe a particular belief system. Supporters typically portray the Confederacy's cause as noble and most of its leaders as exemplars of old-fashioned chivalry, defeated by the Union armies through numerical and industrial force that overwhelmed the South's superior military skill and courage. Proponents of this movement also condemned the Reconstruction that followed the Civil War, claiming that it had been a deliberate attempt by Northern politicians and speculators to destroy the traditional Southern way of life. Margaret Mitchell's Gone with the Wind. Gone with the Wind has almost certainly done its ideological work. It has sealed in popular imaginations a fascinated nostalgia for the glamorous southern plantation house and ordered hierarchical society in which slaves are 'family,' and there is a mystical bond between the landowner and the rich soil those slaves work for him. It has spoken eloquently-albeit from an elitist perspective-of the grand themes (war, love, death, conflicts of race, class, gender, and generation) that have crossed continents and cultures.
-The narrator is the viewer through whom or what the reader sees
-Does not have to be a character in the story or even a person at all
-A perspective used to relay events
-Four aspects of voice - point of view and degrees of omniscience, objectivity, and reliability
-Creates by general types of narrative voice: objective or dramatic, framed, omniscient, limited omniscient, and first person

Objective and framed: story set in the present. Reader presented with little information. Mainly based on events, actions, dialogue.

Framed narrative: Embedded narrative within a story. Gives it a degree of perspective (Canterbury Tales)

Omniscient: narrated in third person. Unlimited knowledge about the events, character and conflicts.

Limited Omniscient: third person, narrator is associated with a character in the story. Can tell the reader his thoughts and feelings. Not those of other characters. May be main or minor character. Might be directly involved in events and conflicts. Might be only observer of events. May use one or several narrative voices (husband and wife's perspective)

First person: use "I" tells story from main character's perspective. Four types of voices: interior monologue- train of thought, subjective narration- unreliable narrator, detached autobiography - reliable narrator reflects past, observer narration - reliable or unreliable, mainly an observer rather than participant.
Third Person: most common. Short stories and novels. Can float above the story and detail each and every character to whatever depth you desire. Can choose character's thoughts and actions to reveal. Controlling flow of information. Almost never a character. Able to express opinions and offer advice freely. The narrator is the viewer through whom or what the reader sees
Does not have to be a character in the story or even a person at all
A perspective used to relay events
Four aspects of voice - point of view and degrees of omniscience, objectivity, and reliability
Creates by general types of narrative voice: objective or dramatic, framed, omniscient, limited omniscient, and first person

Objective and framed: story set in the present. Reader presented with little information. Mainly based on events, actions, dialogue.

Framed narrative: Embedded narrative within a story. Gives it a degree of perspective (Canterbury Tales)

Omniscient: narrated in third person. Unlimited knowledge about the events, character and conflicts.

Limited Omniscient: third person, narrator is associated with a character in the story. Can tell the reader his thoughts and feelings. Not those of other characters. May be main or minor character. Might be directly involved in events and conflicts. Might be only observer of events. May use one or several narrative voices (husband and wife's perspective)

First person: use "I" tells story from main character's perspective. Four types of voices: interior monologue- train of thought, subjective narration- unreliable narrator, detached autobiography - reliable narrator reflects past, observer narration - reliable or unreliable, mainly an observer rather than participant.
Third Person: most common. Short stories and novels. Can float above the story and detail each and every character to whatever depth you desire. Can choose character's thoughts and actions to reveal. Controlling flow of information. Almost never a character. Able to express opinions and offer advice freely.
-Aesthetic style or genre of fiction in which magical elements are blended into a realistic atmosphere to access a deeper understanding of reality
-Magical elements explained like normal occurrences, presented in a straight forward manner
-Allows real and fantastic to be accepted in same stream of thought
-Visual art genre
What happens when a highly detailed realistic setting is invaded by something too strange to believe
-Rather than explaining reality using natural or physical laws in typical Western texts, magical realists create a reality in which the relations between incidents, characters and setting could not be justified by their status within the physical world or normal acceptance by bourgeois mentality

Gabriel Garcia Marquez, One Hundred Years of Solitude, blends reality and fantasy. "A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings" - angel falls to Earth in violent rainstorm. Found by Pelayo. Shocked to see an angel. Never question its existence. Reality is never mistrusted. Telling a fairy tale in a realistic manner while incorporating magic. Shows true human nature. Humans use it to make a fast buck. Not fairy tale ending. Wish it to leave.

Chiefly Latin-American narrative strategy that is characterized by the matter-of-fact inclusion of fantastic or mythical elements into seemingly realistic fiction. first applied in the 1940s by Cuban novelist Alejo Carpentier, who recognized this characteristic in much Latin-American literature. Some scholars have posited that this is a natural outcome of postcolonial writing, which must make sense of at least two separate realities—the reality of the conquerors as well as that of the conquered. Example: A very old man with enormous wings by Garbriel Garcia Marquez. Describes and reacts to angel like he was an everyday occurrence. One Hundred Years of Solitude by Gabriel Garcia Marquez is the most most popular example. "Letters to a Young Lady in Paris" by Julio Cortazar.
-aka meta-narrative, meta-discourse or grand narrative
-Jean Francois Lyotard called the emancipation narrative
-Refer to totalizing social theories which appeal to notions of transcendental and universal truth and purport to offer a comprehensive account of knowledge and experience
-Meta = beyond or about
-Refers to all encompassing narratives which explain smaller narratives
-Founding element of postmodernism
-Concerned with late 20th century scientific knowledge, its reflection on the different forms that knowledge takes, how it is legitimated and shared, and how changed since WWII
-Knowledge in the form of story telling
Similar to myths and legends in tribal times, i.e. such and such mountain was there because some mythic put it there. The narrative is not only explained but legitimated knowledge, functioned as a legitimation of the existing power relations and customs
-Religion institutionalized this knowledge. The Christian narrative was not an explanation but a legitimation of the norms of Christian society
-Sees some kind of interconnection between events related to one another, a succession of social systems to make sense of history
-It is all those conceptions with try to make sense of history
people in authority on everybody else.
-It is another version of the end of history, another way of saying that bourgeois society is as good as it gets. The master narrative is whatever ideological script that is being imposed by the
-The master fiction...history.

Toni Morrison's The Bluest Eye -

Pecola Breedlove pathetic character. Surrendered completely to the so-called master narrative, the whole notion of what is ugliness, what is worthlessness. Got it from her family, school, movies. From a white man's life. It has a certain point of view. When little girls see the most prized gift is a white doll, that's the master narrative speaking. Pecola surrendered to that. The I of the story is a bridge. She needs so much. She becomes the perfect victim, the total pathetic one. For an abused child, she can only escape into fantasy, where the mind is creative and can think up things.

Jean Francois Lyotard-1979. Post-Modern. Critique of institutional and ideological forms of knowledge. Totalizing narrative of metadiscourse of modernity which have provided ideologies with a legitimizing philosophous history.

4 western master narratives
1 Greek Fatalism
2Christian Redemptionism
3. Bougeois Progressivism
4 Marxist utopianism

Univeralizing narraties no longer viable in Post-modernity no longer viable b/c we have our own stories. Adherence changes world views creates binaries.
I know why the cage bird sings- Maya Angelou
The dress- she thinks it is pretty until she goes to church
Toni- Morrison's The Bluest Eye.
-Self-consciously and systematically draws attention to its status as an artifact in order to pose questions about the relationship between fiction and reality
-Examine fundamental structures of narrative fiction
-Explore possible fictionality of the world outside the literary fictional text

Dox Quixote goes made reading too much. Sees reality through Arthurian legend and other chivalric romances, cannot separate fiction from reality. Debates literature in his novel. Questions the veracity of the first part of the book, which has already been published in the real and fictional world. Destroys the printing house where an apocryphal version of the second part, which did circulate in the real world too, is being printed.

Donald Barthelme, Sixty Stories, 1970
The School, challenges the very purpose of education and literature which cannot hope to answer the most important questions. Views of my Father Weeping, offer a set of alternative stories as one story, which can be explained neither as happening simultaneously, because they can be substitutions for each other, nor as happening in sequence, because they cannot be combined according to normal logic. They erase or cancel out each other.

Ian McEwan, Atonement. 2001 A novel about a writer writing a novel. The story becomes framed by the readers expectations. Distancing the reader from the subject matter, an invitation to think while reading.

Fiction in which the subject of the story is the act or art of storytelling of itself, especially when such material breaks up the illusion of "reality" in a work. Self consciously and systematically draws attention to its status as an artifact in order to pose questions about the relationship between fiction and reality
Examine fundamental structures of narrative fiction
Explore possible fictionality of the world outside the literary fictional text.
An example include Chaucer's narrator in the Canterbury Tales, in which the pilgrim tells the reader to "turn the leaf [page] and choose another tale" if the audience doesn't like naughty stories like the Miller's tale. This command breaks the illusion that Geoffrey is a real person on pilgrimage, calling attention to the fictional qualities of The Canterbury Tales as a physical artifact--a book held in the readers' hands. Robert Scholes popularized the term.
-Highly intellectual poems
-Use strange imagery
-Use frequent paradox
-Contain extremely complicated thought
-Invented by 17th century poets
-Conceit is a farfetched analogy between two opposite things unlike simile and metaphor
-Remarkably different in structure, comparison, and subject matter than simile and metaphor, although it is one
-Usually sets up an analogy between one entity's spiritual qualities and an object in the physical world
-Sometimes controls the whole structure of the poem
-Exotic and long winded
-Novelty, new ideas are put forward to startle the readers
-An elaborate analogy between two completely different things
-Unconventional and wordy vocabulary
-Unification of sensibility
-Blend thoughts and feelings in their conceits
-Predominantly drawn from religion, astronomy, alchemy, astrology, superstition
-Not a piece of embellishment, but a part of the entire poem

Samuel Johnson first coined the term, Lives of the most Eminent English Poets. 1779-81

John Donne, The Flea. The flea bites the poet as well as the beloved. Beloved gets angry and about to kill the flea, when the poet interrupts her and prevents her from killing the innocent flea. Tells her that doing so, she might murder three beings as our blood has already mingled with each other outside the flea.

Associated with the John Donne and similar poets of the 17th Century. Extended metaphor that usually sets up an analogy between one entitiy's spiritual qualities and an object in the physical world. John Donne "The Flea" the poet tells his darling that she has no reason to deny him sexually as the flea has sucked blood from both them and their blood has mingled in its gut, so the flea has become their "wedding bed", though they are not married yet.
-Convenient name for the quality or force in a play which challenges threater's claim to be simply realistic, to be nothing but a mirror in which we view the actions and sufferings of characters like ourselves, suspending our disbelief in their reality
-Sharpens our awareness of the unlikeness of life to dramatic art
-Making us aware of life's uncanny likeness to art
-Calling attention to strangeness, artificiality, illusoriness, arbitrariness
-Marking frames and boundaries conventional dramatic realism hides
-Presents actions so alien, improbable, stylized, absurd, we are forced to acknowledge the estranging frame
-May break the frame ofthe fourth wall of conventional theater
-Reaches out to assault the audience or draw into realm of play
-Uses devices like plays within plays, commentary on theater
-Dwells on boundary between illusion and reality
-Makes us speculate on complex mixture of illusion and ordinary experience
-Drama about drama
-Subject of the play turns out to be drama itself
-Encourage self-knowledge
-Emphasize play's own artistry
-Gives insight into character
-Situates play in relation to wider world
-Bridges the gap between stage and audience by making audience aware of theatricality of their everyday lives
-Striking feature of Shakespearean drama

Lionel Abel- coined. Focuses on dramatic consciousness of the characters of being characters in the play.
a convenient name for the quality or force in a play which challenges theatre's claim to be simply realistic -- to be nothing but a mirror in which we view the actions and sufferings of characters like ourselves, suspending our disbelief in their reality. begins by sharpening our awareness of the unlikeness of life to dramatic art; it may end by making us aware of life's uncanny likeness to art or illusion. By calling attention to the strangeness, artificiality, illusoriness, or arbitrariness -- in short, the theatricality -- of the life we live, it marks those frames and boundaries that conventional dramatic realism would hide. It may present action so alien, improbable, stylized, or absurd that we are forced to acknowledge the estranging frame that encloses a whole play. It may, on the other hand, break the frame of the "fourth wall" of conventional theatre, reaching out to assault the audience or to draw it into the realm of the play. It may -- by devices like plays within plays, self-consciously "theatrical" characters, and commentary on the theatre itself -- dwell on the boundaries between "illusion" or artifice and "reality" within a play, making us speculate on the complex mixture of illusion and reality in our ordinary experience. a certain deliberate reflexiveness, a tendency to refer to itself or to its context in a more general mode: to theatre itself; to art, artifice, and illusion; and perhaps above all to language as such. Example Shakespeare's Hamlet.
-Imitation or representation
-Something else rather than an attempt to literally duplicate the original
-Aristotle in the Poetics defined tragedy as the imitation of an action.
-Drama takes instant of human action and re-presents its essence while translating it into a new medium
-Example: Takes WWII and recreates the event involving a few people in a few thousand square feet over a few hours
-Poetry would distill the meaning into syllables, stress, verse and diction
-May involve ecphrasis, the act of translating one verbal art form to another. Book to film.
-Derrida uses mimesis in relation to texts which are non-disposable doubles that stand in relation to what preceded them, referring to something that has preceded them. Thus never the origin, never inner, never outer, always doubled.
-Always begins as a double. Lacks an original model. Its inherent intertexuality demands deconstruction.
-Difference is the principle of mimesis, a productive freedom, not eliminating ambiguity
-Contributes to the profusion of images, words, thoughts, theories, and action without itself becoming tangible.
-Resists theory
-Constructs a world of illusion, appearances, aesthetics, and images
-Existing worlds are appropriated, changed, reinterpreted
-Images bind our experience of reality to subjectivity and connote a sensuous beyond reference to reality

Keats, Ode to a Grecian Urn attempts to capture the eternal and changeless nature of visual art depicted on an excavated piece of pottery.

Chaucer's, Knights Tale, involves an elaborate architectural recreation of three pagan temples, the artwork on the walls, verbal construction of an entire coliseum to enclose a knightly combat.

Imitation/representation/mimicry, the presentation of the self. A philosophical concept discussed by Plato in the Republic, Aristotle in Poetics, and others. For both Plato and Aristotle, it is a key feature of poetry, but they evaluate it differently. For Plato, it is a negative because poetry cannot depict truth or teach morality because it is irrational - based on inspiration and knowledge. Therefore, poetry should be banned because it only leads us farther away from the truth. Aristotle saw this imitation in as a positive because it was not a passive copy but an act of creation to represent the universal truths about nature, which we could learn from.
-Flourished during English 17th and 18th century
-Mocks conventions of heroic (epic) poetry
-Takes the elevated heroic language of epic poetry and tells rather ordinary, dull, stories
-Uses the same style, but he content is different
-Style of poem emulates the formal properties of epic poetry to a comic purpose
-Poem tends to be long
-Divided into cantos
-Formal invocations, epic similes, detailed description of battles, ridiculed
-Linked to parody and satire

Jonathon Swift, Gulliver's Travels

Alexander Pope, The Rape of the Lock, tells of the pilfering of a lock of hair and parodies kidnapping of Helen of Troy in the Iliad. Mocks gods, making them petty and quarrelsome

Lord Byron's, Don Juan, based on the legends of the womanizer Don Juan, Bryon depicts a weak willed man who is an antihero, whose adventures are amorous rather than dangerous.

form of satire that adapts the elevated heroic style of the classical epic poem to a trivial subject. Most begin with an invocation to the muse and use the familiar epic devices of set speeches, supernatural interventions, and descents to the underworld, as well as infinitely detailed descriptions of the protagonist's activities. Thus, they provide much scope for display of the author's ingenuity and inventiveness. Most notable example: Alexander Pope's The Rape of the Lock (1712-14), which concerns a society beau's theft of a lock of hair from a society belle; Pope treated the incident as if it were comparable to events that sparked the Trojan War.
-Type of literature that attempts to apply scientific principles of objectivity and detachment to its study of human beings.
-Implies a philosophical position
-Human beings as products should be studied impartially, without moralizing about their natures
-Writers believed the laws behind the forces that govern our lives might be studied and understood through the objective study of human beings
-Used a version of the scientific method to write their novels
-Studied human beings governed by their instincts and passions, way in which they lived, governed by forces of heredity and environment
-Darwin's study is basis for naturalist writer - natural selection and survival of the fittest help to depict the struggle against nature as a hopeless fight
-Detached mode of narration
-Language - formal; piling on images
-Human beings unable to stand up against enormous weight of circumstances
-Deterministic - natural and socioeconomic forces stronger than man
-Heredity determines character
-Violence - force against force
-Taboo topics
-Animal imagery
-Attention to setting
-Characters lower economic class
-Often about the darker side of life
-Pessimistic materialistic determinism
-Characters conditioned and controlled by environment
-Compensating human value that affirms the significance fo the individual
-Characters do not have free will

There's Stephen Crane. His 1893 work, Maggie: A Girl of the Streets, is considered the first American naturalistic novel. The Red Badge of Courage, a short novel from 1895, is a fascinating story of a Civil War soldier who deserts his unit. A brutally honest portrait of a gruesome war. One of its most haunting passages involves the young soldier coming across a decaying corpse. This is what real war is like - death and decay.

Emile Zola, 1880, characters as human beasts. Characters studied through their relationships to their surroundings.

1880-1930. Uses science to depict real life.
A literary movement seeking to depict life as accurately as possible, without artificial distortions of emotion, idealism, and literary convention. The school of thought is a product of post-Darwinian biology in the nineteenth century. It asserts that human beings exist entirely in the order of nature. Human beings do not have souls or any mode of participating in a religious or spiritual world beyond the biological realm of nature, and any such attempts to engage in a religious or spiritual world are acts of self-delusion and wish-fulfillment. Humanity is thus a higher order animal whose character and behavior are, as M. H. Abrams summarizes, entirely determined by two kinds of forces, hereditary and environment. The individual's compulsive instincts toward sexuality, hunger, and accumulation of goods are inherited via genetic compulsion and the social and economic forces surrounding his or her upbringing. Stephen Crane Maggie: A Girl of the Streets.
-Jonathan Edwards
-An expression of two themes -
*the absolute sovereignty of God
*Edward defends theological determinism, doctrine of occasionalism, insist physical objects are only collections of sensible ideas. Finite minds are mere assemblages of thoughts and perceptions
*Only real cause or substance underlying physical and mental phenomena. God is being in general, the sum of all being
-The beauty of God's holiness
*Accounts of God's end in creation
*Nature of true virtue and true beauty
*God creates in order to manifest a holiness which is truly beautiful
*Genuine human virtue is an imitation of divine benevolence
*All finite beauty is an image of divine loveliness
*True virtue is needed to discern this beauty

The common notion is that you can understand something about God or the spiritual world through Nature.

Thomas Aquinas - 13th century 1st used term.
Prove existence of God through reason & nature. Summa Theologica, often called the "Treatise on God" presents philosophical arguments for the existence of God, divine attributes, divine providence, etc. Summa Centra Gentiles presents a series of detailed philosophical demonstrations of the existence of God.

John Edwards- "we are bred up in the light of revelation from our very infancy," refers to the revelation of God in nature which is sometimes called the Book of Nature. Edwards reads nature through a scriptural lens.

Thomas Paine- spirituality through scientific lens.

Thoureau & Emerson - Spiritual & moral world through natual emblems without scripture, and intuition associated with nature.
-Transcendentalism- Walden. In-dwelling God.
-Means being capable of eliminating one's own personality, in order imaginatively to enter into that of another person, animal or object.
-Ability to contemplate the world without the desire to try and reconcile contradictory aspects or fit it into closed and rational systems
-An emotional state characterized indecision, restlessness, uncertainty, and tension resulting from incompatible inner needs or drives of comparable intensity
-Keats creative concept seems positive
-Longed to find beauty in what was often an ugly and terrible world. Admirer of Shakespeare. Keats described Shakespeare's genius as : what quality made a man, negative capability, is when a man is capable of being in uncertainties. Mysteries, doubts, without any irritable reaching after fact and reason.
-The poetical character has no self - it is everything and nothing - it has no character and enjoys light and shade. It lives in gusto
-In order for Keats to create true poetry, one had to be able to remain in what may be states of conflict without irritably reaching after facts or reasons.
-By not imposing one self upon the doubts and uncertainties which make up a conflict
-Keats rather we open to the Imagination
-Latin, (dubitare), doubt = two minds. -Most conflicts, two minds oppose one another. Instead of fighting, Keats finds the situation to be one that is open for creativity.
-A sublime expression of supreme empathy
-Empathy is the capacity for participating in, experiencing, and understanding another's feelings or ideas. To help us understand different points of view, or cultures, so that we might be able to express them.
-To see from another POV, to apply an open imaginative creativity are critical to resolve conflicts creatively
-Keats own mind was invaded by other identities, such as Wordsworth and suffered from egotistic sublime.

A term used by Keats to describe the objective and impersonal aspect of Shakespeare. It is a term that can be applied to any artist who avoids making their work the expression of their own personality. describes the capacity of human beings to transcend and revise their contexts. The term has been used by poets and philosophers to describe the ability of the individual to perceive, think, and operate beyond any presupposition of a predetermined capacity of the human being. The ability to contemplate the world without the desire to reconcile contradictory aspects. Example John Keats' "Ode to a Grecian Urn"
The poet gets out of the poem. Be as unbiased as you can be. Beauty is truth.
-Natural man
-Untouched by corrupting influences of civilization
Founded on the belief that in a state of nature, human beings are essentially good
-Evil impulses are manifest only as a result of societal stresses
-Late 16th and 17th century, the indigene or savage, showed Europeans how morally decrepit their advanced civilizations were.
-Religious wars caused mass slaughters
-Ironic and damaging; used to describe American Indians; myth that surrounded them put Native peoples in untenable social position. Myth has been used to dismiss the legitimate contributions, worldviews, and qualities of indigenous people
-Christopher Columbus reports about the islanders he discovered - generous, innocent, peaceful, easy to make servile
-Literature depicted the noble savage as innocent, physically perfect, always fearless, highly instinctive, peaceful, free of social restraints, extremely brutish when provoked
-Set the stage for showing how the stronger, more realistic characteristics of Europeans could be used to conquer the weaker, outdate primitives
-May have helped rationalize genocidal atrocities and assuage guilt for such crimes
-Jesuit missionaries gave indigenous populations noble attributes of innocent children, but brute savage with whom they took great risks to do their work
-Served to colonize and oppress American Indians
-Supported Manifest Destiny
-Scholars employed the concept in discussions about human nature and social progress
-Politicians refer to it as a way to promote Euro-centric superiority

Hope Leslie Marie Sedgwick

Michel de Montaigne - Of Cannibals, 1587, tupinamba people of Brazil who ate their corpses of their enemies as a matter of honor, were not as barbaric as Europeans who killed one another over disputes about religion.

Rousseau criticized dominant European and served as a backdrop for his own political agenda. Mentioned authentic indigenous approaches to democracy, later used by founding fathers US.

John Dryden The conquest of Granada 1672, term first used and identified with natures gentlemen. Did not connote cruelty, but the unencumbered freedom of an individual living in harmony with nature .

Gilgamesh - enkiddu the wild but good man lived in harmony with the animals

Cicero and Lucretius - theme of man living in a state of nature.

In literature, an idealized concept of uncivilized man, who symbolizes the innate goodness of one not exposed to the corrupting influences of civilization.
a representative of primitive humankind as idealized in Romantic literature, symbolizing the innate goodness of humanity when free from the corrupting influence of civilization. In state of nature- humans are good. 16th & 17th century. Innocent, fearless, extremely brutish. Example: Queequeg in Herman Melville's Moby Dick.
Aphra Behn's character Oroonoko.
-Use to create emotion
-Empowers writers to move away from abstraction
-Color character's emotion with imagery, metaphor, and meaning
-Originally coined by T.S. Eliot
-"A set of objects, a situation, a chain of events which shall be the formula of that particular emotion; such that when the external facts, which must terminate in sensory experience, are given, the emotion is immediately evoked"
-Obvious thematic cues makes it come across as didactic. -Getting it across without pointing, takes finesse
-An object in the story that serves a symbolic purpose
-It's an everyday item that possesses some thematic presence or conjures an image or an emotional response
-Allow writers to communicate universal concepts tastefully and subtlety
-To express emotion in art is to find a set of objects, a situation, a chain of events that serves as the formula of that emotion.
-The idea is to turn an object, event, or character in a story into a translating mechanism that poses a greater question not on the page.
-The questions these objects invoke aren't intrinsic.
-Repeating the invoked object that correspond with the circumstance in the story, the reader accepts as something greater than the sum of their parts. Their presence serves as a bridge to the theme of the work.
-Show don't tell axiom
-Details through dialogue, scene, and action instead a laundry list of descriptive details
-Presents an article that relates to the circumstances of the story

Virgina Woolf, To the Lighthouse, the lighthouse
William Faulkner, As I lay dying, the coffin
Ralph Ellison, Invisible Man, the hole
Don Dellilo, White Noise, airborne toxic event
Harper Lee, To Kill a Mockingbird, boo Bradley

T.S. Elliot
Refers to taking something objective and using it to represent the character's feelings, response, emotions. correlates to the subjective. A way of implying how people feel without telling you. There is no single way to respond to something. A part of the author not having the authority he used to have. The narrator tells more of what the character does than what the characters feels. The sun Also Rises. The scene of the coffee being picked up and wiped away while Jake watches is shown and it represents his feelings about himself and Brett Ashley.
-Sexual development stage
-Focuses on the psychological states that Freud claims all children go through
-The phallic stage, child develops a strong sexual desire for the parent opposite sex and hatred toward the parents of the same sex
-Child realizes they can't have sexual relations with that parent and turn to same sex parent for guidance

Eugene O'Neill's Long Day's Journey into Night
Illustrates impact of unresolved Oedipal conflicts can have on bourgeois families. Edmund is engaged in a power struggle with his father. Shouts at his father telling he has never given his mother anything to help her off morphine. I hate your guts! Tyrone responds, how dare you talk to your father like that. he does not attack the substance of Edmund's attacks against him, but points out youth's lack of authority. Highlighting status as son underscores Oedipal nature of father-son struggle.

Also romantically fixated on his mother. If she'd take care of him al by herself, she'd have been able to...His desire to possess his mother alone cast his father as destroyer of that one chance. They are the only ones that display signs of affection. The Oedipus complex fail to erupt in open conflict, and the family turns to addictions.
Sigmund Freud "Interpretation of Dreams"
Son's desire of mother. Getting father away because he doesn't allow incest from Sophocles' Oedipus Tyrannus. Oracle states he will kill father and marry mother.
Parallel form Rex to Hamlet - Delay of killing Uncle because he killed father like Hamlet wanted.
All children go through this phallic stage.
-Society of shepherds as free from the complexity and corruption of city life
-Idylls far remote from the realities of any life, rustic or urban.
-Sometimes sues the device of singing matches between two or more shepherds
-Themes: love and death
-Climax reached later 17th century
18th century revival
-Modern pastoral dwelled on the innocence of the contemporary rustic
-Growing reaction against artificialities of the genre -Wordsworth, George Eliot, Knut Hamsun

Virgil used the device of alluding to contemporary problems, agrarian, political, personal, in the rustic society he portrayed, Eclogues

Edmund Spenser, Shepheardes Calender 1579

Shakespeare, As you Like It, pastoral play

Theocritus Bucolics, first pastoral poetry

John Milton

Percy Bysshe

Matthew Arnold

Genre of literature that depicts rural life in an idealized manner, typically for an urban audience. Class of literature that presents the society of shepherds as free from the complexity and corruption of city life. Many of the idylls written in its name are far remote from the realities of any life, rustic or urban. This convention sometimes uses the device of "singing matches" between two or more shepherds, and it often presents the poet and his friends in the (usually thin) disguises of shepherds and shepherdesses. Themes include, notably, love and death. An example Thomas Lodge's Rosalynde is a pastoral romance. In Rosalynde, the main characters are of high birth that have been exiled or forced to move from the court into nature to become shepherdess and foresters.

Also, elogy, lyric, drama
-Invented in Italy, 13th century
-Petrarch brought sonnet to high form of development in 14th century
-Petrarch fell in name with Laura in a church at first glimpse. She married someone else.
-Used conventions of courtly love for a beautiful lady, unattainable lady
-Love is excruciatingly painful
-Angelically beautiful and virtuous lady is cruel
-Love is a religion
-Christian and classical imagery coexist
-God of love is unpredictable, powerful, and cruel
-Eyes are the windows to the soul
-Love begins at first sight
-Poet subject to extremes of feeling and internal conflict
-Became popular among gentlemen
-Often circulated in manuscript form
-Publication was not considered gentlemanly or ladylike

14 line sonnet, one octave and one sestet. octave - problem sestet - solution. abba (2 4 lines) cdecde or cdcdcd (6 line)
Conventions address a lady - with "golden hair" "ivory breast "ruby lips" . . . any idealized compliments about her perfect appearance. She is both the object and image of love.
the poet addresses a lady (corresponding to Petrarch's Laura) she often has a classical name like Stella or Delia the poet-lover praises his mistress's superlative qualities using descriptions of beauty supplied by Petrarch: "golden hair," "ivory breast," "ruby lips." She is the object and image of love. poet-lover presents himself as ardent and impetuous. poet-lover dwells only on the subjective experience, hence on the misery of being in love: hence the occasional appearance of the conventional invocation to sleep to allay the pain (insomnia poems). the poet employs contradictory and oxymoronic phrases and images: freezing and burning, binding freedom (see CXXXIV). the poet disclaims credit for poetic merits: the inspiration of his mistress is what makes the poetry good, he claims. the poet promises to protect the youth of his lady and his own love against time (through the poetry itself immortalizing).
Sir Philip Sydney - "Astrophel & Stella"
-Literature related to colonizer-colonized experience
-Literature affected by the imperial process
-Novels, poetry, drama written during the reign.
-Resistant descriptions - descriptions of indigenous people, places and practices to counteract stereotypes, inaccuracies, and generalizations which colonizers circulated in educational, legal, political, and social texts and settings
-Appropriation of the colonizers language, many writers choose to write in the colonizers tongue
-Reworking colonial art to reflect indigenous modes of invention and creation, to incorporate style, structure, and themes, such as oral poetry and dramatic performances
-Characters are struggling with their identities in the wake of the colonization
-Characters deal with economic, political, and emotional effects of long term colonization
-Enters the text through a specific lens to ask reader to examine effects of colonization

Edward Said Orientalism (1978) focused on exploring and questioning artificial boundaries drawn between the East and West. Focused on stereotypes of Middle easterners. Us/Other mentality.

Chinua Achebe

EM Forster A Passage to India

writing which has been "affected by the imperial process from the moment of colonization to the present day"
1) Reclaiming spaces and places Colonialism was, above all, a means of claiming and exploiting foreign lands, resources, and people. Enslavement, indentured labor, and migration forced many indigenous populations to This type of literature attempts to counteract their resulting alienation from their surroundings by restoring a connection between indigenous people and places through description, narration, and dramatization.
2) Asserting cultural integrity During colonization, the indigenous cultures of those countries subjected to foreign rule were often sidelined, suppressed, and openly denigrated in favor of elevating the social and cultural preferences and conventions of the colonizers. In response, much postcolonial literature seeks to assert the richness and validity of indigenous cultures in an effort to restore pride in practices and traditions that were systematically degraded under colonialism.
3) Revising history Colonizers often depicted their colonial subjects as existing "outside of history" in unchanging, timeless societies, unable to progress or develop without their intervention and assistance. In this way, they justified their actions, including violence against those who resisted colonial rule. Revising history to tell things from the perspective of those colonized is thus a major preoccupation of postcolonial writing.
Characteristics 1) Resistant descriptions Postcolonial writers use detailed descriptions of indigenous people, places, and practices to counteract or "resist" the stereotypes, inaccuracies, and generalizations which the colonizers circulated in educational, legal, political, and social texts and settings.
2) Appropriation of the colonizers' language Although many colonized countries are home to multiple indigenous languages—in India, for example, more than 12 languages exist alongside English—many postcolonial writers choose to write in the colonizers' "tongue". However, authors such as Arundhati Roy deliberately play with English, remolding it to reflect the rhythms and syntax of indigenous languages, and inventing new words and styles to demonstrate mastery of a language that was, in a sense, forced upon them.
3) Reworking colonial art-forms Similarly, authors such as Arundhati Roy rework European art-forms like the novel to reflect indigenous modes of invention and creation. They reshape imported colonial art-forms to incorporate the style, structure, and themes of indigenous modes of creative expression, such as oral poetry and dramatic performances. Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart.
In literature, this refers to the continued effects of colonialism and the transformations of former colonies in the context of changing imperial conditions. It is concerned with history, culture, literature, and modes of discourse that are specific to European colonialism from its beginning to the present. Encompasses aspects of literature viewed through a perspective that reveals the ways in which the social and economic life represented in literature was underwritten by colonial exploitation in order to describe the mechanics of colonial power, recover excluded or marginalized subaltern voices, examine damaging representations of Third World Countries and Cultures, and analyze the use of Western education in the spread of imperialism. Focus on identities affected by diasporas in a globalized world, contemporary forms of empire, hybridization of colonial languages and cultures, and rejection of Western master narratives. Edward Said's Orientalism is the most important text.
-Marked, both stylistically and ideologically by a reliance on literary conventions as fragmentation, paradox, unreliable narrators, often unrealistic and impossible plots, games, parody, paranoia, dark humor and authorial self-reference.
-Authors tend to reject outright meaning
-Highlight and celebrate possibility of multiple meanings or complete lack of meaning
-Often rejects boundaries between high and low forms of art, as well as distinctions between different genres and forms of writing
-Styles used:
*Pastiche - taking various ideas from previous writings and pasting them together to make new styles
*Intertexuality - the acknowledgment of previous literary works within another
*Metafiction - act of writing about writing or making readers aware of the fictional nature of the very fiction they're reading
*Temporal distortion - use of non-linear timelines
*Minimalism - use of characters and events decidedly common and non-exceptional characters
*Maximalism - disorganized, lengthy, highly detailed
*Magical realism - impossible or unrealistic events
*Faction - mixing of actual historical events with fictional without clearing defining either
*Reader involvement - direct address to reader and open acknowledgment of fiction nature of the events

-Postmodern literary styles serve to dispute, reverse, mock, and reject principles of modernity
-Not questing for meaning in a chaotic world, but eschewing, playfully, the possibility of meaning
-Often presented on a parody of modernist lit quest for meaning
-Serves as a reaction to supposed stylistic and ideological limitations of modernist literature
-Authors tend to depict world as having already undergone many disasters and beyond redemption
-Awareness of utter apocalypse on the horizon
-To find meaning is impossible
-Argues knowledge and facts are relative to particular situations
-Futile to locate precise meaning to idea, concept, or event
-Argues all belief systems are developed for purpose of controlling others and maintaining particular political and social systems
-Takes nothing presented at face value as being legitimate
-Literature should serve to reveal world's absurdities, countless paradoxes, and ironies

Thomas Pynchon The Crying of Lot 49 - protagonist quest for knowledge and understanding results ultimately in confusion and any sort of clear understanding of what is happening.

1945 - reaction to high modernism. An era where it is hard to apply logic. absence of tradition & structure.
commonly defined in relation to a precursor. tends not to conclude with the neatly tied-up ending as is often found in modernist literature (Woolf, Joyce, Faulkner), but often parodies it. tend to celebrate chance over craft, and further employ metafiction to undermine the writer's authority. Another characteristic is the questioning of distinctions between high and low culture through the use of pastiche, the combination of subjects and genres not previously deemed fit for literature. Catch-22 Joseph Heller
-Explores and seeks to explain diversity and often divergence of reader's responses to literary works
-Louise Rosenblatt 1938 pioneered saying, a poem is what the reader lives through under the guidance of the text and experiences relevant to the text.
-Stanley Fish argued any school of criticism that sees a literary works as an object, claiming to describe what it is and never what it does, misconstrues the essence of reading and literature whose force is affective.
-Reading is a temporal process
-Wolfgang Iser argues that texts contain gaps that affect the reader who must explain them, connect what they separate, create in his mind what is not there, but is incited
-A redefinition of the reader. No longer passive. The implied reader, educated reader, intended reader
1970s evolved to not a reader guided byt one motivated by deep seated, personal, psychological needs.
-To find our own identity theme using the work to symbolize and replicate ourselves
-We work out through the text our own characteristic patterns of desire
-Interpretative strategies held in common by interpretive communities
-Reader oriented criticism
-Woman, black, gay way of reading

No one correct meaning. Wolfgang Iser- has gaps and indeterminate nature. A school of criticism focusing on the reader's experience of the text rather than the author, content, or form of the work. The reader imparts "real existence" to the work and gives it meaning through experience and interpretation of that experience. Each reader creates his/her own unique meaning. theorists share two beliefs: 1) that the role of the reader cannot be omitted from our understanding of literature and 2) that readers do not passively consume the meaning presented to them by an objective literary text; rather they actively make the meaning they find in literature". The modernism movement and the hermeneutics of suspicion. i.e. Hemingway relies on the reader's interpretation of the work.
-Dominant in second half of 19th century
-New approach to character and subject matter
-Attention to detail
-Effort to replicate the true nature of reality
-To report what happens without comment or judgment
-Sense of being there in the moment
-Dense fabric of minute details and observations
-Rests upon the strength of characters rather than plot or turn of phrase
-Coincided with Victorianism
Journalistic techniques, such as objectivity and fidelity to the facts
-Early form of docudrama in which fictional person and events are intended to reproduce the world
-Plight of less fortunate
-Balancing act for upwardly mobile to maintain their position
-Understanding that in human mind there are very few absolutes
-Embraced the concept that people were neither completely good or bad
-Intricate and layered characters, flesh and blood creatures
-Internal monologues and understanding human psychology
Individual is composed of a network of motivations, interests, desires, and fears, how they interact and do battle
-Most of the action is internalized
-Changes in mood, perceptions, opinions, and ideas constitute turning points or climaxes
-Observed life did not follow a definite arc, instead grand happenings, tragedies and epic turns of events, not greatly disturbed by external circumstances
-Not much happens. Lengthy and weighty where action happens in the mind
-Often unreliable narrators who do not have all the information, colored by their own prejudices and beliefs
-Frame narratives, story inside a story, places reader further from the events
-Reality is unknowable, uncertain, and ever-shifting
-Locale almost becomes a character of its own
-Grimness and grittiness
-Fascination with things falling apart
-Gave way to Naturalism

Samuel Clemens, Mark Twain - produced vernacular, gave birth to local color. Innovator in focusing on middle and lower class characters. Huckleberry Finn produced honest speech
Henry James - Daisy Miller. Relates how a young and rich American girl touring Europe is victimized by sophisticated schemers, with no compunctions about right or wrong. Greed, power, and exploitation of new world by the Old.
Dostoevsky - Brothers Karamazov psychologically complicated, multifaceted, with conflicting impulses and motivations that replicate daily tribulations of being human
Stephen Crane

Dominant in 2nd half of 19th century. New approach to character and subject matter. Attention to detail. Effort to replicate the true nature of reality. To report what happens without comment or judgment. Sense of being in the moment. Dense fabric of minute details and observations. Rests upon the strength of characters rather than plot or turn of phrase. Coincided with Victorianism. Journalistic techniques. Fictional person and events are intended to reproduce the world. Plight of less fortunate. People were neither completely good or bad. Internal monologues and understanding human psychology. Individual is composed of a network of motivations, interests, desires, and fears. Most action is internalized. Changes in mood, perceptions, opinions, and ideas constitute turning points or climaxes. Henry James- Aspern papers.
-Term generally applied to the predominant social philosophy of the period from 1400-1650
-Return to favor of pagan classics stimulated the philosophy of secularism, the appreciation of worldly pleasures, generated by expansion of trade, growth of prosperity, intensified the assertion of personal independence and individual expression
-Classical revealed similar social values and secular attitudes
-Humanist mentality stood between medieval supernaturalism and modern scientific and critical attitude
-Man of renaissance lived between two worlds - the Christian matrix and not quite the scientific - between faith and reason
-Individual experience became more interesting than the afterlife
-Fortuna (chance) replaced Providence
-Present world end in itself instead of world to come
-Distinction between world (City of man) and next (city of god) disappeared
-An aesthetic movement, trying to find beauty, rather than supernatural or scientific
-Human experience, man himself, became the practical measure of things
-Ideal life, not an escape, but a full participation in human relationships
-Pagan lit, with emotional and intellectual affinity for new world, accelerated drift towards secularism and stimulate humanity, worship of beauty
-Began as pious, timid, and conservative drift from Christiantiy and ended in independence
-Embodied the mystical and aesthetic temper of a pre-scientific age
-Did not free the mind from subservience to ancient authority
-They shifted authorities to the classic writers rather than dismissed authority altogether
-Read Aristotle for aesthetic pleasure and moral uplift
-Thought the ancients were divinely inspired?
-Rebirth of individualism, repressed by caste system in Roman empire, Church, and feudalism
-Medieval Christianity restricted individual expression, fostered self-abnegation and self annihilation.
-Demanded unquestioning obedience. Church ignored man and nature
-Freedom of individual and opposition to authority was first brought to surface and became integral part of western intellectual tradition

Erasmus was between extreme piety and frank secularism
Petrarch, conservative Italian humanism
Sir Thomas More
Francis Bacon skeptical and agnostic humanism
Montaigne frank and urbane and devout skeptics
Rabelais bold anticlerical satirists

educational philosophy that emphasized the learning of classical languages and literature, taught that humans could become more virtuous through education, advocated combining classical values with Christian faith, emphasized the importance of life in this world and the care of the body as well as the soul. Proponents believed people, created in the image of God, were the center of the created universe. This way of thinking and relating to past cultures informed Milton's learning and helped constitute who he was. sought to create a citizenry (frequently including women) able to speak and write with eloquence and clarity. This was to be accomplished though the study of the studia huanitatis, today known as the humanities grammar, rhetoric, history, poetry, and moral philosophy.
Influenced the works of Milton
-18th and 19th century movement
-A large network of sometimes competing philosophies, agendas, and points of interest
-Primary vehicle of expression was poetry
-America 1830 up to the Civil War
-Novel most fitting for Romanticism in America
-Concerned with individual more than society
-Individual imagination
-Altered states of consciousness in order to enhance creative potential
-Downgrading importance of reason
-Reaction against Enlightenment
-Gradually more invested in social causes thanks mostly to Industrial Revolution
-Yearn for an idealized, simpler past
-Strong connection with medievalism and mythology
-Clearly mystical quality
-Loosening of the rules of artistic expression
-Experimentation with new styles and subjects
-High-flown language replaced with more natural cadences and verbiage
-Rhymed stanzas gave way to blank verse
-Found their voice in the poets and novelists of Renaissance
-Concentration on the individual mind shifted from optimism into more cynical study of underside of humanity
-Strongly individualist religious traditions influenced

William Blake - 1790s gradually built up a sort of personal mythology of creation and imagination. Used old and new testament as source material, transfigured biblical stories to something original. Master engraver self published quasi mythological poetry.

William Wordsworth - 1798 Lyrical Ballads dominant theme Nature. Voice is observant, meditative, and aware of connection between living things and objects. Sense of past, present, and future all mix together in the human consciousness. Poet and landscape are in communion.

Walt Whitman - Leaves of Grass. Voice infused with the spirit of democracy. Attempted to include all people in all corners of the Earth within the sweep of his poetic vision. Coined new words. Rhythmic style to verse that ran counter to the aesthetics of the last century. Got his start in journalism.

Nathaniel Hawthorne - master of symbolism The Scarlett Letter. Dense symbolism about guilt, family, honor politics, and society. Story written in distant past. Dabbles in supernatural and grotesque. Espoused conviction objects can hold significance deeper than apparent meaning. Darkness, if not outright pessimism. Explored meanings that shift in and out of person's consciousness.

Herman Melville - Benito Cereno, Moby Dick had a dense fabric of hinted meanings and symbols, a deep understanding of history, mythology, and religion. Dark, mysterious, hints of the supernatural, meditations in madness, power, and nature of being human

An artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in more areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1840. Partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, it was also a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature.
Characteristics: going back to nature, speaking in the voice of the people, sympathetic imagination, gothic novel, Wordsworth, John Clare, Percy Shelley.
-Early 20th century
-Rooted in Gothic style who concocted wild, frightening scenarios in which mysterious secrets, supernatural occurrences, and character's extreme
-Morbid and grotesque
-Drafty castles with cobwebs, secret passages, wide eyed heroines
-Not interested in integrating elements of the sensational for the sake of suspense or titillation
-Elements of Gothicism used for what they revealed about human psychology and the dark underlying motives that were pushed to the fringes of society
-Explored the extreme, antisocial behaviors
-Reaction against confining code of social conduct
-Hinged on the belief life and refined surface of social order were fragile and illusory, disguising disturbing realities or twisted psyches
-Appropriation and transformation
-Literature that mixes terror and horror in order to shock and disturb
-Combine comic or obscene exaggeration with sometimes gratuitous violence
-Representations of physical deformity or sexual deviance
-These traits represent a kindred response to the stultifying effects of traditional antebellum plantation society, which in resistance view functioned only through blindness to the horrors inherent in slavery and through pretentious rituals of honor and obedience
-Address alienation and disorder in modern southern settings
-Grotesque mode's of combining strange, often violent discrepancies or oppositions in plot, character or imagery.

Flannery O'Connor - Good Country People displace the horrors of a world without morality or reason onto grotesque female bodies. Deformed, freakish, psychotic, imbecilic female characters are inversions of the pure, white southern lady, icon of the well ordered universe of the southern tradition. Her imagined South is defined as a Christ haunted landscape in which characters can be forgiven anything except spiritual complacency.

Tennessee Williams - iconography of estrangement in physical, often sexual grotesqueries. Social codes allowed so few avenues for the express of disagreement.

Eudora Welty

Faulkner, A Rose for Emily - moody and forbidding atmosphere; a crumbling old mansion, decay, putrification, grotesquerie. Highlight individual struggle against oppressive society undergoing change. Appropriated the image of damsel in distress and transformed it into Emily, a psychologically damaged spinster. Her mental instability and necrophilia have made her an emblematic Southern gothic heroine.

An extension of the American Romantic Period of literature that focuses on the brooding and unknown terror elements. a literary tradition that came into its own in the early twentieth century. It is rooted in a style, which had been popular in European literature for many centuries in which writers concocted wild, frightening scenarios in which mysterious secrets, supernatural occurrences, and characters' extreme duress conspired to create a breathless reading experience. The proceeding style focused on the morbid and grotesque, and the genre often featured certain set pieces and characters: drafty castles laced with cobwebs, secret passages, and frightened, wide-eyed heroines whose innocence does not go untouched. Although this style borrows the essential ingredients of its predecessor, writers of this fiction were not interested in integrating elements of the sensational solely for the sake of creating suspense or titillation and what it reveals about the psyche. An example Absalom! Absalom! The content of the Stupen house remains a mystery.
-Uninterrupted and unhindered collection and occurrence of thoughts and ideas in the conscious mind.
-Flow of thoughts of a particular character
-Used to provide narrative in the form of thought instead of dialogue or description
-Offers a glimpse at the humanity of fictional characters
-The self-consciousness resembles a river or waterfall to represent the flow of thoughts and opinions hidden in the mind. secret opinions nobody knows in a way that every human being has the same characteristic feature in terms of pondering from their mind and getting to know only this person
-Reveal the inner sides of personality
-Introduces us directly into the internal life of the character without the author's adding his or her own perspective.
-Expression of the most deep intimate thoughts which represent outside reality allowing the main character to analyze in her mind and reflect his or her impression by adding the standpoints.
-Enables the reader to enter the inner life of a character straight away and to pay attention the flow of sensations and lines of vision without depending on the rules of societies
-Takes away its direction in the sense of a logical arrangement of incidents and events, leading chronologically to survive in society and the development of the character according to the norms of society to the attraction of the character from his or her own mind
-in order to put the thoughts that pass from the characters' minds, their feelings,
reactions and memories throughout the events of the day.
-Related to the events which are connected with memories from the characters' pasts or the reality that the main character of the story faces
-Characters' internal realities with their external reality in order to resemble the way in which we experience life

Virginia Woolf -

*The characters in Woolf's novels have fluid identities that change as the narrative progresses, reflecting the ways in which people in real life evolve as they mature.
*Rely heavily on interior monologue where she can explore the subjective realm of a character's memories, thoughts and dreams.
*Included authorial interjections to guide the reader and shape the narrative called indirect interior monologue, occurs in the third person.
*In "To the Lighthouse," when Mr. Ramsay displays "the pleasure of disillusioning his own son and casting ridicule upon his wife, who was ten thousand times better in every way than he was (James thought)," the phrase "James thought" sticks out as an authorial signpost.
*An attempt to capture the impressions that never get direct formulation as thoughts, and allows the author to jump from character to character.
*Presents multiple characters' impressions of shared circumstances.
*Employs silence to creates the impression of silence through the introduction of peripheral, nearly mute characters and the use of parenthetical asides to describe actions.
*The peripheral characters, such as the poet Carmichael in "To the Lighthouse," appear as silent images whose thoughts are conveyed through actions, rather than in a stream of consciousness monologue. The use of parentheses offsets the narrative's silent moments from the general cacophony. This technique expands the effectiveness of Woolf's narrative in that it forces the reader to formulate his own impressions of the silent imagery.

Faulkner - The Sound and the Fury explore the depths of different characters inner conflict through disjointed, unpunctuated narrative

Prevalent in Modernism, it is a narrative mode in which the author seeks to portray an individual's point of view by giving a written description of the characters' thought processes. It is characterized by associative leaps of thought and lacks punctuation. An example would be William Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury. In the novel, Benjy and Quentin's section are written in stream of consciousness. We follow the character's thought process and are not restricted by time but are guided by the associative thoughts
-Roots go back to Germany (derived from Kant) concerned not with objects but with our mode of knowing objects
-Kant argued individuals have power to reason for themselves and how to fit their reasoning into an overall view of the world. Encouraged a healthy level of doubt, but not to the point of nihilistic despair. Some things cannot be known for certainty
-Americans blended a powerful idealism with Puritanical humility and work ethic
-Grind of ordinary life and society seen as barriers between self and spirit
-Nature presents a way to free the mind of distractions
Imagination glorified as defining divine characteristics and consciousness
-Wanted to effect change, personally and globally
-The spark of divinity lies within man
-Everything in the world is a microcosm of existence
-The individual soul is identical to the world soul or Over-Soul
-Belief in the Inner Light
-Emphasis on the authority of the Self
-Communing with nature through work and art man could transcend his senses and attain understanding of beauty, goodness, and truth
-Message of confident self identity, spiritual progress and social justice in landscape and mindscape
-Early 19th century movement
-Sense of a new era at hand
-Critics of contemporary society for its unthinking conformity
-Urge each person find an original relation to the universe
-Sought this is in solitude amidst nature and in their writing
-Critique of American slavery
-Believed knowledge could be derived from, not just through senses, but intuition and contemplation of internal spirit
-Skepticism of established religions
-Believe Divinity resided in the individual
-Mediation of church was cumbersome to achieving enlightenment
-Philosophy was inexorably bound together with American's expansionist impulse, slavery, and women's place in society

English :



Emerson - What is popularly called transcendentalism among us, is idealism; Idealism as it appears in 1842. Self Reliance
Thoreau - Civil Disobedience

an American literary, political, and philosophical movement of the early nineteenth century, centered around Ralph Waldo Emerson. Stimulated by English and German Romanticism, the Biblical criticism of Herder and Schleiermacher, and the skepticism of Hume, operated with the sense that a new era was at hand. They were critics of their contemporary society for its unthinking conformity, and urged that each person find, in Emerson's words, "an original relation to the universe" (O, 3). Emerson and Thoreau sought this relation in solitude amidst nature, and in their writing. By the 1840s they, were engaged in the social experiments of Brook Farm, Fruitlands, and Walden; and, by the 1850s in an increasingly urgent critique of American slavery. Walden Emerson.
Doctrine of self-reliance - rely on instincts because of the in-dwelling god.
Doctrine of correspondnce (form of symbolism)
-A narrator who can't be trusted
-From ignorance or self-interest, this narrator speaks with a bias, makes mistakes, or even lies
-A character whose telling of the story is not completely accurate or credible due to problems with the character's mental state or maturity.
-Holds a distorted view of the events, which leads to an inaccurate telling of the story, but this can give readers/viewers a chance to offer their own interpretations
-First used by Wayne C. Booth in 1961 in The Rhetoric of Fiction
-Indicators that a narrator is unreliable include contradicting stories, incomplete explanations of events, illogical information, and even questions of the narrator's sanity
-Some stories are related by narrators by who are such terrible people that they cannot tell their stories objectively
-Not always deliberately deceptive

Nobokov's Lolita stylistic device employed so convincingly reader's questioned Nabokov's own character, believing he shared Humbert's predilection for nymphets. Humbert claims he toyed with the nurses and doctors when he was institutionalized, he toys with us and makes a persuasive argument - his controlling, mocking, and delusional nature peering through his lyrical narration.

Fitzgerald's Gatsby - Nick Carraway only knows what the aloof Gatsby reveals to him and the second hand stories of other characters, including his dishonest girlfriend, Jordan. Nick claims responsibilities for inaccuracies. Also claims he is inclined to reserve judgments against other characters, then proceeds to judge them. Nick's moral conflict increasingly vexes him, which also alters his judgment.

Catcher in the Rye - Holden Caulfield JD Salinger, openly admits he's the most terrific liar you ever saw. His opinions about the world seem skewed by adolescent angst, Salinger makes us questions Caulfield's stability at the end.

A narrator whose credibility has been seriously compromised. The term was coined in 1961 by Wanye C. Booth in The Rhetoric of Fiction. This narrative mode is one that can be developed by an author for a number of reasons, usually to deceive the reader or audience. Most often are first-person narrators. a narrator who can't be trusted
from ignorance or self-interest, this narrator speaks with a bias, makes mistakes, or even lies
a character whose telling of the story is not completely accurate or credible due to problems with the character's mental state or maturity.
holds a distorted view of the events, which leads to an inaccurate telling of the story, but this can give readers/viewers a chance to offer their own interpretations
Edgar Allan Poe's narrators fit pattern. Such as the narrator in "The Tell-Tale Heart." The narrator is trying to plead for his sanity; therefore, his account of events is biased.
-A commodity must possess a use-value in order to serve as the substratum of exchange-value.
-Time and energy leak out of the organic composition of capital and the labor process like a sieve
-Waging war against waste: laziness, traditionalism, inefficiency
-Spectacle represents the transformation of waste (uselessness) into exchangeable surplus and the consumption of uselessness
-Examples: competitive eating, upcycling, NASCAR are uselessness-value of spectacle
-The Society of the Spectacle represents the theoretical extension of exchange value beyond the forms that Marx outlines: accidental, expanded, general, money, and now spectacular
-Spectacle represented a dialectical leap into a new fetishism where commodities, money and capital performed the impossible feat of slipping free from use-values and beyond the constitutive exchange relation
-Commodities are things that store objective value
-Think that commodities have value
-Value is a form of collective thinking whose foundation is abstract labor, not material
-Commodity does not represent a preservation or storage function
-The exchange relation confers upon a utility the social status of being a value
-The objectivity of value is abstract, a thing of thought or sublime objectivity
-The usefulness of a commodity is compared to other objects on the market
-Marx distinguishes between the use-value and the exchange value of the commodity
-Use-value is inextricably tied to the physical properties of the commodity; material uses to which the object can actually be put, the human needs it fills
-Two commodities can be exchanged on the open market because they are compared to their universal equivalent, which is taken over by money
-The exchange relation of commodities is characterized precisely by its abstraction from their use-values
-Money hides the real equivalent behind the exchange, labor
-The more labor it takes to produce a product, the greater its value
-As exchange values, all commodities are merely definite quantities congealed labor-time

Karl Marx & Frederick Engels "Capital"
From Karl Marx, the value-form or form of value is a concept in Karl Marx's critique of political economy. Exchange value refers to the social form, a socially attributed status, of a commodity, any product traded in markets, which contrasts with the tangible use-value or utility, which it has, as a product which satisfies some human need. The use-value of a product is normally observable when we see the product being used. The economic value of a product, however, refers to a symbolized relationship which is not directly observable, except as a number signaling a potential money-price.

Chaucer's Cantebury Tales Pardoner's tale.