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c before e, i, or y says /s/ (cent, city) but followed by any other letter says /k/ (clock, cat)
g before e, i, or y usually says /j/ (page) but followed by any other letter says g (glove, gate)
Vowels a, e, o, and u usually say their names (long sound) at the end of a syllable (na vy, mu sic)
i and y usually say the name i (long i) at the end of a syllable, but not always. (hi, cy cle but u ni ver si ty)
use ei after c
If the sound is long a, use ei (neighbor). There are some exceptions to this. It is a short list of words.
• sh may be used at the beginning or end of a base word (ship, wish).
• sh can be used at the end of a syllable (fin ish).
• sh cannot be used at the beginning of a syllable in the middle of a word. (only 1 excepton: wor ship)
The phonogram sh is used at the beginning or end of a base word at the end of the syllable but never at the beginning of a syllable after the first one except for the ending ship
si is used to say sh when the syllable before it ends in an s (ses sion) or when the base word has an s where the base word changes
All, written alone, has two l's, but with another syllable, only one l is written (al so, al most)
adding a suffix to a word that ends with a consonant and y, use i instead of y unless the ending is ing
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