ARTH 1441- Lecture 4

Sculpture during the Proto-Renaissance in Pisa Florence Baptistery Door Competition Renaissance Sculpture in Florence Architecture of the Florence Cathedral Renaissance Architecture in Florence and Mantua

Terms in this set (...)

Nicolas Pisano, Pulpit of Pisa Cathedral Baptistery, Pisa
1259-1260, Marble
-Mixture of Gothic (Medieval tracery) and Classical (Roman) sculptural elements
-Humanistic (classical) culture of Southern Italy (Sicily) may have been an influence
Nicola Pisano, The Annunciation and the Nativity, Bas-relief from Pisa Cathedral Pulpit
1259-1260, marble
Ara Pacis Augustae (Emperor Augustus's Altar of Peace), Tellus (Pagan Fertility Goddess)
13-9 BC, marble
-Typical example of a Roman bas-relief
Filippo Brunelleschi, Sacrifice of Isaac, Competition Panel for East Doors, Baptistery of Florence Cathedral, Florence
1401-1402, Gilded bronze relief
Lorenzo Ghiberti, Sacrifice of Isaac, Competition Panel for East Doors, Baptistery of Florence Cathedral, Florence
1401-1402, Gilded bronze relief
Competition for East Doors Baptistery of Florence
-1401: Competition for east doors of Florence baptistery
-Sponsored by Wool Merchants' Guild
-Submissions by two finalists, Brunelleschi and Ghiberti, survive
-Old Testament iconography: Sacrifice of Isaac
-Both scenes: inserted into French Gothic quatrefoil pattern
-Different underlying aesthetic principles: Brunelleschi: more conservative, no experiments, maybe a touch of Gothic style ; Ghiberti: dram, profound understanding of classical canon of the male nude, muscularity and anatomy of body
-Right: Roman copy of Doryphoros, example of canon of classical beauty in the art of Antiquity
-Ghiberti won the competition with his proposal
-Culture of humanism favored his approach
Lorenzo Ghiberti, Gates of Paradise, East Doors, Baptistery of Florence Cathedral, Florence
1425-1452, Gilded bronze relief
-Ghiberti's completed competition doors moved to south side; second set of doors commisioned
-Michelangelo: "so beautiful... they would do well for the Gates of Paradise"
-No onger quatrefoil pattern > rectangle
-Detail, panel: "Isaac and His Sons"
-Emphasis on single-point Perspective
-Relief flattens progressively from bottom to top
-Greater sense of depth
Nanni di Banco, Four Crowned Saints, Or San Sichele, Florence
c. 1408-1414, marble
-Or San Michele: Headquarter of the guilds in Florence, but also served one time as church
-Early 14th century building with niche for statuary to be filled by guilds
-Nanni di Banco given over the commission to fill the sculptures' guild niche
-Patron saints: defied order by Emperor Diocletian to sculpt pagan idol> martyrdom
-Thorogoughly classical figure group
-Figures are free-standing, not engaged with the wall
-Engaged sculptures: Medieval convetion
-Classical drapery
-Phsiognomy of classical Sculpture
-Similar to Roman portraiture
Donatello, Saint Mark, Or San Michele, Florence
1411-1413, marble
-Another sculpture for the niches of the Or San Michele by a different artist
-Commissioned by the guild of the linen drapers
-Another example of a statue inspired by the art of Classical Antiquity:
-Classical convention of contrapossto (weight shift)
-Example: Kritios Boy, 490-480BC, marble (Ancient Greece)
Donatello, Feast of Herod, from the baptismal font of Siena Cathedral Siena
c. 1425, gilded bronze relief
-Fondness of perspectival rendering
-Aesthetically closer to Ghiberti
-Symmetrical rhythm, measure
-Iconography: Salome, still daning (to the right) delivers severed head of St. John the Baptist to king Herod
-Animation, emotionalism
-Classical drapery
Donatello, David
late 1420s-late 1450s, bronze
-Commission for the Palazzo Medici courtyard in Florence
-Canon of classical nudity
-Middle Ages: the Classical nude could not be represented
-Connotations pagan tradition, sin
-First free-standing classical nude figure since Antiquity
-Compare: Roman copy of an Ancient Greek sculpture of Hermes
-Interpreted in Biblical story: David, slayer of Goliath
-David treading on Goliath's head
-David also associated with the independent republic of Florence
-Classical convention of contrapposto (weight shift)
Andrea del Verrocchio, David
c. 1465-1470, bronze
-A second Medici commission
-Different approach to subject:
-No classical nude, although body contours clearly visible
-Psychological difference:
1. Donatello: introspection, quiet, classical, looking at Goliath's head
2. Verrocchi: brash, confident, self-assertive, looks at spectator
Luca della Robbia, Madonna and Child, Or San Michele, Florence
c. 1455-1460, terracotta with polychrome glaze
-Architectural ornaments in glazed terracotta
-Typical devotional images
-Here: on the Or San Michele
-Tondo (round) format
Begun by Arnolfo di Cambio, Florence Cathedral, Florence
-Cathedrals since the Middle Ages symbols of civic pride of a city
-Reflect wealth and prosperity
-Di Cambrio built nave of Florence Cathedral
-Marble pattern on facade: typical feature of traditional Tuscan architecture (Tuscany=region around Florence)
-Painter Giotto di Bondone designed Campanile (bell tower) to the right in 1334
-Biggest structural problem: How to design dome (challenge to engineering skills)?
-Remained unresolved until...
Fillippo Brunelleschi, Dome of FLorence Cathedral, South View, Florence
-Dome crossing impossible with traditional techniques available (wooden centering, buttressing)
-Brunelleschi was the sculptor who lost in the competition over the Baptistery Door commission
-Brunelleschi's solution:
-Dome consists of ogival (pointed arch) sections with ribs
-Thing double shell for dome (first time ever that this was attempted)
-Reduction of pressure on dome's base
-Highly innovative solution and engineering feat
Fillippo Brunelleschi, Pazzi Chapel, Santa Croce, Florence
begun c. 1440
-Commission received after Cathedral dome completed
-Private commission by Pazzi family to built chapel adjacent to church of Santa Croce
-Exterior facade (loggia) NOT by Brunellechi, but later addition
-Brunelleschi's genius visible in the ground plan
-Dome is dominant feature
-Central plan with modules that follow a strictly symmetrical arrangement
-Interior according to Brunelleschi's design
-Pietra serena (serene stone) and Della Robbia terracotta decorations
-Impression of serenity, austerity
Michelozzo di Bartolommeo, Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, Florence
begun 1445
-Extraordinary concentration of wealth and political power with Medici family, under Cosimo de' Medici
-Family ousted in 1430s
-Return in 1434
-Wary of overly ostentatious display of wealth
-Change of architect and design for palace in the aftermath of expulsion
-Michelozzo di Bartolommeo takes over project
-Solution: hybrid structure between palace and fortress
-Heavily rusticated facade (roughly hewn stone) on ground floor, with increasingly refined architectural detail as one moves up
-Rusticated masonry: Roman Invention
-Building concludes with heavy cornice
-Top: Example of Rusticated masonry in Roman architecture
-Bottom: Courtyard of Palazzo Medici
-Light, airy feel to it; very different from facade
-Original location of Donatello's David
-Corinthian columns
Leon Battista Alberti, Palazzo Rucellai, Florence
c. 1452-1470
-Alberti: an architectural theoretician
-Translated a treatise by Roman writer Vitruvius on architecture (De architectura)
-Palazzo Rucellai: a monument that is filled with references to classical architecture
-1st floor: Tuscan order (capitals: variant of Greek so-called Doric order)
-2nd floor: Composite order (capital: Greek Ionic volutes with Roman-style Acanthus leaves)
-3rd floor: Corinthian order
-Play with architectural traditions as symbol for cultural refinement
Leon Battista Alberti, West Facade of Santa Maria Novella, Florence
c. 1458-1470
-Church proper dates from the 13th century, Alberti designed only the facade
-Alberti's obsession: architectural symmetry, rhythm, mathematical structure, refinement
-Typically Tuscan exterior with marble-encrusted facade
-Structure completely designed according to mathematical ratios (1:1, 2:1, 1:3, 2:3, etc.)
-Another innovative feature: lateral scrolls
Leon Battista Alberti, West Facade of Sant' Andrea, Mantua
designed c. 1470
-Structure rife with Roman architectural references: Temple front merged with triumphal arch
-Rigidly symmetrical, mathematical ratios as design principles