Chapter 25: War and Revolution (WWI)
Terms in this set (47)
Causes of World War I
Creation of Germany
Nationalism/Patriotism (including grudges)
Assassination of Franz Ferdinand
Kaiser Wilhelm II
-Moron who literally destroyed all of Bismarck's work spanning over decades in around a year.
-After foolishly dismissing Bismarck, broke pacts with Russia, allowing France to ally with Russia.
-Further brash nationalistic displays as well as economic rivalry pushed Britain into enemy position.
-The alliance of Austria, Germany, and Italy.
-Italy left the alliance when war broke out in 1914 on the grounds that Austria had launched a war of aggression.
The alliance of Great Britain, France, and Russia prior to and during the First World War.
The alliance of France, Great Britain, Russia, Italy, and later the United States during World War I.
The alliance of Germany and Austria during World War I.
A type of fighting used in World War I behind rows of trenches, mines, and barbed wire; the cost in lives was staggering and the gains in territory minimal.
A war in which distinctions between the soldiers on the battlefield and civilians at home are blurred, and where the government plans and controls economic social life in order to supply the armies at the front with supplies and weapons.
Paul von Hindenburg
-German President 1925-1934
-allowed Hitler to become Chancellor (but still opposed his ambition) and then was overthrown after the Parliament Building (Reichstag) fire incident
Tsar Nicholas II
-Last Tsar of Russia and the end of the Romanov line.
-His refusal to withdraw soldiers led to the rise of Kerensky.
-After Kerensky followed similar patterns, Lenin came to power, and Nicholas II was executed along with the rest of his family under the order of Lenin.
February (March) Revolution
-Unplanned uprisings accompanied by violent street demonstrations in Petrograd, Russia
-Led to the abdication of the tsar and the establishment of a provisional government led by social democrat Alexander Kerensky.
-Democratic socialist who rose to power after the February Revolution led to Nicholas II's abdication.
-Refused to pull out of war even after the citizen's demand, believing that only victory in war would validate new Russia's status as a legitimate power.
October (November) Revolution
-Bolshevik revolution under Lenin against Kerensky after Russia's prolonged participation in the war.
-As Russia's situation in the war had become increasingly dire, Lenin's motto of "Bread, Peace, and Land" became more and more attractive, and at its peak it would instill the revolution.
Radical socialist who founded the Communist Party in Russia and set up the world's first Communist Party dictatorship. He led the October Revolution of 1917, in which the Communists seized power in Russia. He then ruled the country until his death in 1924.
Lenin's Marxist ideology which aimed to place the "revolution" phase of Marxism into socialism/communism before the capitalist state had been achieved after feudalism (the current state of Russia at the time).
Lenin's What Is To Be Done? Called for the creation of this body.
The socialist government that ran Petrograd shortly following the October Revolution. It was a huge, fluctuating mass meeting of two to three thousand workers, soldiers, and socialist intellectuals modeled on the revolution soviets of 1905.
Radical socialists as opposed to democratic socialists (Mensheviks) who, led by Lenin, seized power of Russia in 1917.
Democratic socialists as opposed to radial socialists (Bolsheviks). Led by Kerensky but eventually lost power of Russia in 1917.
"Peace, Land, Bread"
The slogan used by Lenin to win the support of the people. Peace appealed to the soldiers, land appealed to the peasants, and bread appealed to the workers.
Russian revolutionary and Communist theorist who helped Lenin and built up the army. War commissar of the newly formed Red Army with a strict discipline and established draft.
Russian Civil War
After some Russians began to realize that Lenin was reestablishing a dictatorship, social groups united to form the White Army to oppose the so-called Bolshevik "Reds." The more organized Red Army would eventually eventually crush the White with the help of the Red Terror.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Peace treaty signed in March between the Central Powers and Russia that ended Russian participation in World War I and ceded Russian territories containing a third of the Russian empire's population to the Central Powers.
A system introduced under Bolshevik rule after 1917 which involved land being seized and redistributed, factories given to the workers, banks being nationalized, and church property being granted to the state. This was enforced by the Cheka.
Red Army vs White Army
Officially began in September 1918, following attempts on the lives of several Bolshevik leaders, including Lenin. Government decrees gave the Cheka almost unlimited authority and set up forced labor camps to incarcerate those considered enemies.
The NEP (New Economic Policy)
Peasants could once again sell their goods in markets, terror receded, etc. Lenin only saw this as a temporary implementation to fix situation with rebelling peasants. Slight step away from communism, undoing changes from war communism.
-Established by the Western powers in 1949.
-Then a month later the Democratic Republic was made by USSR.
Democratic government of Germany set up after World War I that later would empower Hitler.
"stabbed in the back"
Myth promoted in Germany after the war that, on the brink of victory, socialists and Jewish politicians conspired to surrender to the Allies; used by Nazis as part of their drive to power in the 1920s.
Treaty of Versailles
The treaty officially ending World War I that shafts Germany in the process, being one of the causes of World War II.
-Created fourteen points provision of the Treaty of Versailles
-designed to maintain prolonged peace without any tension.
A series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined
a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I
League of Nations
-An international organization formed in 1920
-Outlined in Wilson's 14 points to promote cooperation and peace among nations.
-The US never actually joins the League, and basically powerless, it dissolves in 1946.
The notion that people should be able to live free from outside interference in nations with clearly defined borders, and should be able to choose their own national governments through democratic majority-rule elections.
The Big Three (Four)
The four powers who met to discuss the finer points of the Treaty of Versailles.
1) France - Clemenceau (wants revenge)
2) England - David Lloyd George (wants power restoration)
3) U.S. - Woodrow Wilson (wants peace and no future conflict)
4) Italy - Vittorio Orlando (wants land/contract collection)
This was the "war-guilt clause" in the Treaty of Versailles that placed total responsibility for World War I on Germany, and the biggest reason in the Treaty of Versailles for World War II
War Guilt Clause
A provision in the Treaty of Versailles that acknowledged Germany and only Germany (important to note: not even Austria), as the sole power responsible for the Great War.
Allocation of former German colonies and Ottoman possessions to the victorious powers after World War I, to be administered under League of Nations supervision. Leads to the creation of the German Federal Republic.
British promise of support for the establishment of Jewish settlement in Palestine.
-As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.
-Ca$h payments a losing power makes to the victors. The Germans were forced to agree to huge reparations.
What was the the connection between Machiavelli and the Treaty of Versailles?
Machiavelli believed that if defeated your enemy, then you should either help them, or harm them enough so that they aren't able seek revenge. The Treaty of Versailles unwisely fell in between the two, harming the Germans enough to anger and humiliate them but not enough to keep them from striking back later.
David Lloyd George
Liberal Party British Prime Minister at the war's end. Wanted to make sure Germany paid for the war and wanted an expansion of the British Empire.
French president of the 3rd Republic who represented France at Versailles. He was determined to weaken Germany (and get $$$)
- leader of Italy, a member of the Big Four, but it was the smallest and most insignificant member
What led to the creation of the 7 new nations of 1919?
The German and Russian Empires lost considerable territory in Eastern Europe at the conclusion of the war, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire disappeared altogether.
What were the 7 new nations of 1919?
-Romania acquired additional lands from Russia, Hungary, and Bulgaria
-Serbia formed the nucleus of the new Slav state Yugoslavia consisting of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes.
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