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Prototype theory Deals well with fuzzy concepts•Fuzzy concepts are categories that cannot be easily defined (Monster, Games)•To categorize something, simply compare to prototype•Evidence for prototypes: Typicality Judgments.There is picture verification: see a picture of something: is it a dog? yes or no.faster if it is prototypical dogVerify Statements: True or False?-A robin is a bird. - fast -A chicken is a bird. - slower -An ostrich is a bird. - even slower

Results of E.E. Smith et al.'s (1974)sentence verification experiment. Reaction times were faster for objects rated higher in prototypicality.Production: List all the birds you can think of.-Robin, Bluejay first, list non-prototypical birds later in list.• Making Inferences-If told a new fact about a prototypical bird (robins),like "robins like to drink milk."-Subjects are willing to extend that to all birds.» Cardinals like milk, too.-But people will not do the same for a non-prototypical member (chickens or ducks) of category.

General process of forming concepts and categories with prototypical members is probably innate.•But the details of the concepts and prototypes we develop are based on experience.•Prototypical house is different in different cultures.•Expertise can restructure a category and result in different types of prototypes (bird watcher, or ornithologist).

Results of Tanaka and Taylor's (1991) "expert" experiment.Experts (left pair of bars) used more specific categories to name birds, whereas nonexperts (right pair of bars) used more basic categories.