•Abstracted representation of a category containing salient features that are true of most instances
•Characteristic features which describe what members of that concept are like
-Monster prototype has these characteristics: Scary, pale, has sharp teeth, is evil, lives in odd place (coffins, closets, or graveyards)
-Vampires, Zombies, and Bogeymen all fit that prototype well
-Can a green, grumpy, lives in a garbage can monster also fit? Yes, but less well.
Prototypes: •General process of forming concepts and categories with prototypical members is probably innate.
•But the details of the concepts and prototypes we develop are based on experience.
•Prototypical house is different in different cultures.
•Expertise can restructure a category and result in different types of prototypes (bird watcher, or ornithologist).
• No single prototype but rather multiple examples convey what the concept represents
• Vegetable Concept = Peas, Carrots, or Beans
• The more similar a specific exemplar is to a known category member, the faster it will be categorized
• Similar to Prototype View
-Representation is not a definition
• Different from prototypes: Representation is not abstract
-Descriptions of specific examples • To categorize, compare to stored examples
Schema: a person'a knowledge about some aspect of the environment
- we develop schemas through our experiences in different situations
- ex. people were in an office and then were asked to write down what they had seen in the office - a lot of people said books even though books were not actually in the office
script: our conception of the order of actions that usually occurs during a certain experience
ex. for going to a Jets game - drive to stadium, park car, walk through tunnel, spin around 3 times, high five dad, walk into stadium, watch Jets lose, listen to sports radio on way home of Jets losing, get home and tell mom Jets lost AGAIN
Evidence for schemas:
Agree on what is in schemas. Recall steps from schemas in order. Read faster if story fits schema. Recall schema items that were not
actually in story
Evidence for scripts:
- Type of schema about events
- Structure captures general information
about routine events
- Eating in a restaurant, attending a movie, a
visiting a doctor's office
- Scripts have typical roles
- (Customers, waiter, cook), (ticket vendor, patrons, refreshments), (doctor, nurse, patient)