Indiana Core Pedagogy Exam- set 1
Terms in this set (96)
Which of the following statements best describes current thinking about second language learning without instruction during childhood?
- Childhood is a sensitive period of development when children are particularly responsive to second language learning.
During the concrete oppositional phase of cognitive development as described by Piaget, students benefit from frequent opportunities to manipulate and test objects primarily because students at this stage:
- Possess a system of thinking that is still tied to physical reality.
Elementary school teachers can best support students in handling difficult situations by engaging them regularly in activities designed to promote which of the following?
- Perspective taking.
Which of the following cognitive advances typically occurs between the ages of 6 & 9?
- Making the transition from learning to read to reading to learn.
Which of the following skills is most important to emphasize first in helping kindergarten students to develop emotional intelligence?
- Recognizing and labeling feelings in themselves and in others.
A 5th grade class includes students whose religious practices have clear guidelines for interactions between male and female students. In this situation, the most appropriate and responsible approach for the teacher to adopt is:
- Consider the students religious practices when arranging classroom seating and assigning students to small groups.
Students in an elementary classroom have varied learning preferences. In this situation, the teacher can best promote learning for all students by emphasizing which of the following approaches?
- Implementing activities that address multiple learning modalities as a regular part of instruction.
In general, students with specific learning disabilities are more likely than their peers without disabilities to develop:
- Negative academic self-concepts.
Students with conduct disorder are more likely to demonstrate which of the following characteristics?
- Persistent patterns of anti social and aggressive behavior.
Which of the following skills is typically last to emerge for English Language Learners?
- Understanding academic language.
In applying the principles of observational learning, the teacher's most important first step is to:
- Present clear and interesting cues to engage students' attention.
A 2nd grade teacher provides students with many hands on activities related to the concepts presented in a lesson about triangles. This approach is particularly appropriate because students at this age level generally:
- Require concrete support to facilitate cognitive processing.
Which of the following approaches is likely to be most effective in facilitating kindergarten students' knowledge construction?
- Providing direct interactions and experiences with real objects whenever possible.
Giving students in the upper elementary grades regular opportunities to participate in rule based games is likely to be most effective in promoting students' development in which of the following areas?
- Social problem solving skills.
A 4th grade teacher makes a point of welcoming individual students as they arrive each day and takes the time to talk with students about their interests and activities on a regular basis. The most important benefit of this practice is that it allows the teacher to:
- Establish a pattern of positive interaction with students.
Which of the following instructional practices is most likely to communicate high expectations for student learning?
- Returning students' work that is not up to standards with specific suggestions for improvement.
Which of the following statements describes the most likely outcome when teachers consistently exhibit enthusiasm for the content they are teaching?
- Students will view the content as important and valuable.
A team of 3rd grade teachers is evaluating instructional plans for an upcoming social studies unit. Which of the following questions would best help the teachers determine whether the unit is appropriately rigorous?
- Does the unit include inquiry based activities that require students to form their own answer?
At the beginning of a unit on transportation, a 1st grade teacher leads students in listing transportation related questions they want to answer. The teacher writes each question on a sentence strip and posts it on the bulletin board. Throughout the unit, the teacher encourages the students to investigate these questions whenever they have free time and post the answers on the bulletin board. This practice is likely to be most effective in helping the teacher achieve which of the following goals?
- Supporting students in becoming independent thinkers and learners.
Students in a 6th grade language arts class have finished reading John Steinbeck's Travels with Charlie. This is a memoir of his journey across the US with his dog. The teacher wants to encourage students' higher order thinking about the text. Which of the following questions would be most effective for this purpose?
- If you followed Steinbeck's route today, what do you think you would see along the way?
Students in a 3rd grade class have been studying fairy tales. They have learned the common elements of fairy tales and read fairy tales from other cultures. The teacher wants to prompt students to think about fairy tales in novel ways. Which of the following assignments would meet this goal?
- Rewrite a popular fairy tale in a modern setting with a different outcome for the main character.
Which of the following teacher strategies is likely to be most effective in supporting the development of 3rd graders' time management skills?
- Helping students establish a habit of recording projects and assignments on a planning calendar.
A 4th grade teacher observes that one student demonstrates exceptional abilities in the area of written expression. However, the student is very shy and has difficulty expressing ideas through discussions. The student shows depth of thinking and a strong grasp of concepts, and the teacher believes the student's ideas would enhance the class discussions. Which of the following actions by the teacher would best help the student overcome this issue?
- Suggesting that the student write down comments about a discussion topic in advance and read them aloud when appropriate.
Which of the following features of the elementary environment is likely to have the most significant positive influence on students' learning?
- Effective classroom management by the teacher.
To promote students ability to function effectively in emerging digital learning environments, teachers should place the greatest emphasis on helping students develop and practice their skills in which of the following areas?
- Communication and collaboration.
A 2nd grade teacher seizes natural opportunities to encourage students to be helpful toward each other and then praises students who willingly offer assistance. For example, when a student spilled a large tub of crayons, the teacher said, "It looks like Joe could use some help. Thank you Mario and Cheryl for helping him." Besides promoting helpful behaviors, this approach is likely to have which additional benefit?
- Creating a supportive and caring learning environment.
A kindergarten teacher who wishes to create a classroom environment that promotes good health and wellness should emphasis which of the following strategies?
- Teaching students appropriate hand washing skills.
A student who has physical disabilities will soon be joining a 4th grade classroom. The teacher wants to provide a welcoming environment that fosters the student's sense of belonging. Which of the following initial approaches by the teacher is most likely to promote this outcome?
- Modeling behaviors that affirm the student's importance as a class member.
A teacher assigns research projects related to students' study of Indiana's natural resources. As a first step, students will submit proposals describing the focus of their research and the final product they plan to create. The development of the proposals is likely to benefit the students most by:
- Motivate them to take responsibility for their own learning.
An elementary school teacher has students complete an interest survey at the beginning of the year. The teacher uses the results to create classroom-learning centers related to the students' interests. The teacher changes the learning centers regularly to ensure all students' interests are incorporated. This strategy is likely to be particularly effective in helping the teacher achieve which of the following goals?
- Enhancing student's engagement and motivation.
A 6th grade teacher's instructional plans routinely include 15-20 minutes of direct instruction and the remainder of the class period for cooperative activities in which groups of students explore and apply science concepts. The teacher's approach is particularly appropriate because students at this age generally are:
- Motivated by learning environments that rely on social interaction.
Which of the following adaptations to the learning environment would likely be responsive to the needs of a 5th grade student with a specific learning disability in reading?
- Providing the student with audio versions of reading materials whenever possible.
A new teacher is planning the classroom-learning environment before the beginning of the school year. The teacher is aware that the students are likely to have varied learning preferences and needs and wants to make sure the learning environment is responsive to these variations. The teacher can best begin to achieve this goal by ensuring that the learning environment includes which of the following features?
- Instructional materials and student resources in multiple formats.
Which of the following features of online environments is likely to be most effective in promoting learner autonomy in elementary school students?
- Anytime availability and links to resources.
A team of 5th grade teachers has established a goal of making greater use of online environments such as virtual museums and laboratories and real time observations of natural events. This approach can be expected to benefit students' learning by:
- Facilitating students' access to a wide range of learning experiences.
A 4th grade teacher has been having a consistent problem with student talking during independent work time. The teacher has tried giving students more work to do and implementing stricter consequences for talking, but these efforts have been unsuccessful in fixing the problem. Which of the following methods is likely to be the teacher's next step in addressing this issue?
- Using a class meeting to engage students in discussing the problem of excessive talking and general possible solutions.
Which of the following statements by a 1st grade teacher best illustrates the principle of positive guidance?
- "Use a quiet voice in the hallways so you do not disturb the other classes."
A 6th grade social studies teacher creates an assortment of content related activities that the students can perform independently when they finish class assignments. The teacher selects high interest topics and requires students to turn in activities they complete. The teacher provides feedback but does not count the activities as a grade. This approach is likely to be most effective in achieving which of the following outcomes?
- Prompting students' engagement in productive learning for the full class period.
A 5th grade teacher observes students who have difficulty concluding one activity and proceeding to the next in a timely manner. The teacher wants to maximize learning time by helping the students learn to anticipate and make effective transitions between activities. Which of the following actions would be the teacher's best first step in achieving this goal?
- Discussing with students each morning a posted schedule of class activities for that day.
A kindergarten teacher arranged the classroom at the beginning of the school year. The teacher defines areas for specific purposes such as literacy development, science discovery, and dramatic play. The teacher also takes care to create safe walkways and clearly labels center materials with storage areas with matching pictures. These actions can be expected to benefit students at this age level by:
- Supporting students in managing their own learning and behavior.
Unpacking curriculum standards is an important strategy in helping teachers achieve which of the following instructional goals?
- Providing students with integrated learning experiences.
Within the context of curriculum mapping, decisions to change or modify instructional practices should be made only when?
- Data-based proof exists to do so
An elementary school teacher can best provide relevant and responsive instruction by taking which of the following actions before beginning to planning process?
- Examining carefully students' characteristics and experiences.
A second-grade grade teacher discovers that students' current knowledge about the topic of an upcoming social studies unit is quite limited. In this situation, the teacher's unit plans should include provisions for?
- Ensuring that students have a foundation of background information on which to build new learning.
The mastery learning approach to instruction is based on which of the following principles?
- With sufficient time and appropriate instruction, all students can attain lesson and unit objectives.
Different instruction is characterized primarily by which of the following processes?
-creating learning experiences that are responsive to students' varied interests and needs.
Students in the kindergarten class are beginning a unit on the senses, and the teacher wants to implement a project-based learning experience related to this topic. Which of the following guiding questions related to the unit topic would be suitable for the purpose?
- How de we use our senses to discover our world?
A first-grade teacher is introducing the concept of wants and needs. The teacher has explained the concept to students and has written a list of common wants and a list of needs on the board, but the students are having difficulty grasping the concept. The teacher can best promote students' understanding by adapting instruction in which of the following ways?
- Using a different strategy and familiar examples to present the concept.
Which of the following approaches represents the most effective way to differentiate instruction for a class of fifth-grade students who perform at a wide range of skill levels?
- Designing tiered assignments for students that address the essential concepts being taught.
A number of students in a sixth-grade language arts class read well below grade level. The class will be studing three literature selections during the course of the semester. In this situation, the teacher can best apply the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) by taking which of the following actions?
- Providing students with access to digital versions of the literature selections with text-to-speech capability.
Which of the following strategies is most important in providing student-centered instruction that is tailored to students' individual strengths and needs?
- Engaging students in an ongoing cycle of goal setting and reflection.
A kindergarten teacher has a goal of promoting students' global awareness. Which of the following approaches would best support this outcome?
- Incorporating literature, songs, games from various world cultures into students' learning experiences.
As part of a Tier 2 intervention in mathematics, three second-grade students will receive small-group instruction to improve their addition and subtraction computation skills. The teacher can best ensure that the intervention is achieved the intended outcome by using which of the following strategies?
- Monitoring and documenting the students' progress frequently.
A sixth-grade science teacher regularly uses tools such as idea webs and Venn diagrams to support content instruction. This practice is likely to be most effective in facilitating students' ability to?
-analyze relationships between concepts.
Which of the following assignments would be most effective in promoting third graders' higher-order thinking?
- Using the information in a bar graph to answer word problems.
A DVD would be a particularly effective instructional resource for which of the following purposes?
- Teaching students the sequence of steps in a process.
Teachers in an elementary school are planning a multimedia presentation for an assembly during School Safety Week. To help ensure that the presentation is effective in helping students learn the targeted safety concepts, the teachers should adhere to which of the following guidelines when designing the presentation?
- Avoiding the use of extraneous words, pictures, sounds.
A first-grade teacher has led students through a number of activities in which they practice locating information sources on a specific topic. The teacher would like to take students a step further by helping them evaluate the information they found. The teacher can promote this outcome by helping students develop the habit of considering which of the following questions first?
- Does the information answer the question I have?
Students in a fourth-grade class like to use word processing software for their assignments whenever possible. However, they often become frustrated by formatting by formatting issues and are sometimes unhappy with how their finished work looks. The teacher can best help students overcome these problems by implementing which of the following strategies?
- Providing students with templates to use for different types of assignments.
Third-grade students have finished writing a three-paragraph essay. The teacher plans to have students read their essay to the class but is aware that some students are reluctant to read aloud. The teacher wants to accommodate these stundets' needs while increasing their comfort level with reading aloud. Which of the following strategies is likely to be most effective in achieving this goal?
- Giving students the option of making an audio recording of their essay to play for the class.
Which of the following technologies would best facilitate student learning in the sciences?
- Digital probe
Which of the following statements describes the most important consideration to keep in mind when communicating through e-mail or text messages?
- The inability to use facial expressions and tone of voice to help interpret messages can lead to misunderstanding.
A teacher wants to encourage students to consider their reading in greater depth. Which of the following questioning strategies during discussions would be most effective in promoting this outcome?
- Posing probing questions that allow for multiple responses
A student is most likely to demonstrate a high level of motivation for and engagement in a learning task under which of the following conditions?
- The student perceives the task to be interesting and useful
Data from classroom assessments are likely to be most reliable when teachers emphasize which of the following processes?
- Implementing and scoring assessments in a fair and consistent manner.
Which of the following statements describes the most important implication of assessment bias for teaching and learning?
- The test scores will not provide a valid pictures of students' abilities
Which of the following pieces of information is most important for a teacher to consider when determining what to include on a classroom assessment?
- Learning objectives for the selected instructional sequence
A teacher uses formative assessments during instruction to gather information about student learning. In the context of this assignment approach, the teacher's decisions should be guided primarily by which of the following questions?
- How should I adjust my instruction to address students' needs?
When constructing classroom assessments at the conclusion of instruction, the teacher's approach has which of the following advantages?
- Enhancing the teachers ability to select the most appropriate strategies for achieving instructional objectives
Which of the following statements describes the most significant weakness of binary-choice (e.g., true-false) assessments?
- There is an even chance of students guessing the correct answer to binary choice questions without knowing the content
A 6th grade social studies teacher allows ELL's to submit a graphic organizer or an outline for open response assessments. This practice is an appropriate assessment adaptation for ELL primarily because it:
- Provides the English learners with an alternate way to demonstrate their learning
(frequency charts to document the specific behavior being observed) This process of observation and documentation is likely to be most useful for helping the teacher:
- Detect patterns or trends in a student's behavior
Which of the following techniques would be most effective in helping a teacher gain insight into kindergarten students' development in a particular area?
- Implementing systematic observations of students' performance in the targeted area
Systematic observation provides the clearest picture of a student's skills under which of the following conditions?
- The observations are conducted in multiple contexts over a period of time
5th grade teacher uses tools such as quizzes, student self-assessment, informal observations, and participation charts as essential elements in their assessment plan. The most important benefit of this approach is that it:
- Provides the teacher with a broad base of evidence for evaluating student learning
A 4th grade teacher is establishing student learning goals for an upcoming science unit. Data from which of the following sources would be most helpful to the teacher in this process?
- An ungraded pre-assessment of unit content
A 3rd grade teacher gives her students quizzes halfway through a unit on division. Many of the students perform poorly on the quiz. Which of the following actions should the teacher take first in addressing this situation?
- Conducting an error analysis to determine how best to adjust instruction
As a self esteem task, 6th graders review the work in their writing journals and reflect on their strengths and weaknesses as writer. The most important benefit of this process is that it:
- Supports in identifying personal writing goals
A students' goal is "to get better at research." The teacher can best help the student achieve success with this goal by taking which of the following steps first?
- Helping the student break the goal into it's component skills
A 3rd grade teacher wants to involve students' parents/guardians in the ongoing assessment of their children's learning. Which of the following strategies by the teacher would best facilitate this outcome?
- Providing tools such as checklists and data sheets that parents/guardians can use to document their children's school related activities
Engaging kindergarten students' families in processes such as completing developmental checklists and implementing systematic observations in a particularly effective method for achieving which of the following goals?
- Gathering the most comprehensive information possible about students
The parents of a 5th grader question the teacher about the discrepancy between their son's performance in the 80th percentile on a recent aptitude test and his performance in the 68th percentile on the standardized achievement test. The teacher can best respond to the parents' questions by explaining that:
- Aptitude tests are designed to predict future performance while achievement tests reflect a students current performance level.
Which of the following outcomes is the most important goal of providing students with feedback during their performance of a learning task?
- Communicating to students how their performance compares with learning targets and what can be done to close the gap
A 6th grade teacher focuses on the use of praise when providing feedback, the teacher uses standard comments such as "good job," "nice work," and "Great." Which of the following statements describes the most significant problem with the teacher's approach to providing feedback?
- Students may come to perceive the teacher's praise as unrelated to their actual performance
When planning lessons that involve services of volunteers, the teachers should make which of the following tasks their most important priority?
- Students may come to perceive the teacher's praise as unrelated to their actual performance
The most important benefit of a school sponsored event between teacher and parents/guardians is that it enables the teachers to:
- Gain insight into the broader school community in which students participate
A 2nd grade teacher has established a goal of improving students' reading fluency. The teacher is considering ways to encourage students and their parents/guardians to read together and a regular basis. Which of the following is likely to be the most effective first step for the teacher to take in achieving this outcome?
- Creating a classroom collection of students' favorite books that they can take home and share with their parents/guardians
A 5th grade teacher develops a series of language arts lessons he believes might be useful for other teachers in the district the teacher wants to share the lessons and invite feedback for other teachers. Which of the following approaches is likely to be most effective for accomplishing the teacher's goal?
- Posting the lessons and related materials on an interactive blog
Teachers in an elementary school want to improve their teaching practices to better promote students' mathematics learning. They have arranged to observe instruction in each other's classrooms on a regular basis and discuss their observations afterwards. The teachers can best help ensure the effectiveness of this process by:
- Demonstrating receptiveness to constructive feedback
A 6th grade science teacher had been experiencing ongoing difficulty in running short of class time before lesson objectives have been met. The teacher is concerned that students will be unable to achieve all of the 6th grade science standards if this continues. Which of the following strategies would be most effective in helping the teacher address this problem?
- Reflecting on instructional plans to identify areas in which pacing can be adjusted
4th grade teachers have developed several new social studies lessons. Each teacher volunteers to implement one of the lessons first in his or her classroom while the other teachers observe. The most important advantage of this process is that it enables the teachers to:
- Refine elements of the lessons to better address students' needs
A 3rd grade teacher notifies a student's parents that their child needs focused reading interventions to improve comprehension skills. The parents express concerns that their child might moss other important instruction due to this intervention. In responding to these concerns, the teacher's most important responsibility is to:
- Explain to the parents how the intervention will be integrated into their child's reading instruction
A parent expresses concerns to a teacher about a student in the class he believes may be experiencing neglect at home but is unsure of how to address the issue. Which of the following actions represents the teacher's legal and ethical obligation in this situation?
- Explaining to the parent that Indiana law requires individuals to report suspected abuse or neglect to the relevant authorities
Zone of Proximal development (ZPD)
- The learner can do it with guidance
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
1.Sensorimotor 0-2 years old
2.Preoperational 2-7 years old
3.Concrete operational 7-11 years old
4.Formal operations 11+ years old
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (in the shape of a pyramid, bottom up)
1.Psychological: ex., food sleep
2.Safety: ex., health job body
3.Love/belonging: ex., family intimacy
4.Esteem: ex., self others
5.Self actualization: "I can do this attitude"