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(PSYC 1103) Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders
Terms in this set (100)
describes behaviors or feelings that deviate from the norm
cause or causes of a psychological disorder
model of psychological disorders resulting from the inability of an internal mechanism to perform its natural function
condition characterized by abnormal thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
study of psychological disorders, including their symptoms, causes, and treatment; manifestation of a psychological disorder
In the harmful dysfunction definition of psychological disorders, dysfunction involves ________.
a. the inability of an psychological mechanism to perform its function
b. the breakdown of social order in one's community
c. communication problems in one's immediate family
d. all the above
Patterns of inner experience and behavior are thought to reflect the presence of a psychological disorder if they ________.
a. are highly atypical
b. lead to significant distress and impairment in one's life
c. embarrass one's friends and/or family
d. violate the norms of one's culture
Discuss why thoughts, feelings, or behaviors that are merely atypical or unusual would not necessarily signify the presence of a psychological disorder. Provide an example.
Just because something is atypical or unusual does not mean it is disordered. A person may experience atypical inner experiences or exhibit unusual behaviors, but she would not be considered disordered if they are not distressing, disturbing, or reflecting a dysfunction. For example, a classmate might stay up all night studying before exams; although atypical, this behavior is unlikely to possess any of the other criteria for psychological disorder mentioned previously.
co-occurrence of two disorders in the same individual
determination of which disorder a set of symptoms represents
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5)
authoritative index of mental disorders and the criteria for their diagnosis; published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA)
International Classification of Diseases (ICD)
authoritative index of mental and physical diseases, including infectious diseases, and the criteria for their diagnosis; published by the World Health Organization (WHO)
The letters in the abbreviation DSM-5 stand for ________.
a. Diseases and Statistics Manual of Medicine
b. Diagnosable Standards Manual of Mental Disorders
c. Diseases and Symptoms Manual of Mental Disorders
d. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
A study based on over 9,000 U. S. residents found that the most prevalent disorder was ________.
a. major depressive disorder
b. social anxiety disorder
c. obsessive-compulsive disorder
d. specific phobia
Describe the DSM-5. What is it, what kind of information does it contain, and why is it important to the study and treatment of psychological disorders?
The DSM-5 is the classification system of psychological disorders preferred by most U.S. mental health professionals, and it is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA). It consists of broad categories of disorders and specific disorders that fall within each category. Each disorder has an explicit description of its symptoms, as well as information concerning prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidity. The DSM-5 provides a common language that enables mental health professionals to communicate effectively about sets of symptoms.
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the DSM differ in various ways. What are some of the differences in these two classification systems?
The ICD is used primarily for making clinical diagnoses and more broadly for examining the general health of populations and monitoring the international prevalence of diseases and other health problems. While the DSM is also used for diagnostic purposes, it is also highly valued as a research tool. For example, much of the data regarding the etiology and treatment of psychological disorders are based on diagnostic criteria set forth in the DSM.
suggests that people with a predisposition for a disorder (a diathesis) are more likely to develop the disorder when faced with stress; model of psychopathology
describes a force beyond scientific understanding
The diathesis-stress model presumes that psychopathology results from ________.
a. vulnerability and adverse experiences
b. biochemical factors
c. chemical imbalances and structural abnormalities in the brain
d. adverse childhood experiences
Dr. Anastasia believes that major depressive disorder is caused by an over-secretion of cortisol. His view on the cause of major depressive disorder reflects a ________ perspective.
Why is the perspective one uses in explaining a psychological disorder important?
The perspective one uses in explaining a psychological disorder consists of assumptions that will guide how to best study and understand the nature of a disorder, including its causes, and how to most effectively treat the disorder.
anxiety disorder characterized by intense fear, anxiety, and avoidance of situations in which it might be difficult to escape if one experiences symptoms of a panic attack
characterized by excessive and persistent fear and anxiety, and by related disturbances in behavior
generalized anxiety disorder
characterized by a continuous state of excessive, uncontrollable, and pointless worry and apprehension
area of the brainstem that contains norepinephrine, a neurotransmitter that triggers the body's fight-or-flight response; has been implicated in panic disorder
period of extreme fear or discomfort that develops abruptly; symptoms of panic attacks are both physiological and psychological
anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks, along with at least one month of worry about panic attacks or self-defeating behavior related to the attacks
mental and behavior acts designed to reduce anxiety in social situations by reducing the chance of negative social outcomes; common in social anxiety disorder
social anxiety disorder
characterized by extreme and persistent fear or anxiety and avoidance of social situations in which one could potentially be evaluated negatively by others
anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, distressing, and persistent fear or anxiety about a specific object or situation
In which of the following anxiety disorders is the person in a continuous state of excessive, pointless worry and apprehension?
a. panic disorder
b. generalized anxiety disorder
d. social anxiety disorder
Which of the following would constitute a safety behavior?
a. encountering a phobic stimulus in the company of other people
b. avoiding a field where snakes are likely to be present
c. avoiding eye contact
d. worrying as a distraction from painful memories
Describe how cognitive theories of the etiology of anxiety disorders differ from learning theories.
Learning theories suggest that some anxiety disorders, especially specific phobia, can develop through a number of learning mechanisms. These mechanisms can include classical and operant conditioning, modeling, or vicarious learning. Cognitive theories, in contrast, assume that some anxiety disorder, especially panic disorder, develop through cognitive misinterpretations of anxiety and other symptoms.
body dysmorphic disorder
involves excessive preoccupation with an imagined defect in physical appearance
characterized by persistent difficulty in parting with possessions, regardless of their actual value or usefulness
obsessive-compulsive and related disorders
group of overlapping disorders listed in the DSM-5 that involves intrusive, unpleasant thoughts and/or repetitive behaviors
characterized by the tendency to experience intrusive and unwanted thoughts and urges (obsession) and/or the need to engage in repetitive behaviors or mental acts (compulsions) in response to the unwanted thoughts and urges
area of the frontal lobe involved in learning and decision-making
repetitive and ritualistic acts that are typically carried out primarily as a means to minimize the distress that obsessions trigger or to reduce the likelihood of a feared event. often include such behaviors as repeated and extensive hand washing, cleaning, checking (e.g., that a door is locked), and ordering (e.g., lining up all the pencils in a particular way), and they also include such mental acts as counting, praying, or reciting something to oneself
persistent, unintentional, and unwanted thoughts and urges that are highly intrusive, unpleasant, and distressing
Which of the following best illustrates a compulsion?
a. mentally counting backward from 1,000
b. persistent fear of germs
c. thoughts of harming a neighbor
d. falsely believing that a spouse has been cheating
Research indicates that the symptoms of OCD ________.
a. are similar to the symptoms of panic disorder
b. are triggered by low levels of stress hormones
c. are related to hyperactivity in the orbitofrontal cortex
d. are reduced if people are asked to view photos of stimuli that trigger the symptoms
Discuss the common elements of each of the three disorders covered in this section: obsessive-compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, and hoarding disorder.
Each of the three disorders is characterized by repetitive thoughts and urges, as well as an uncontrollable need to engage in repetitive behavior and mental acts. For example, repetitive thoughts include concerns over contamination (OCD), imaged physical defects (body dysmorphic disorder), and over discarding one's possessions (hoarding disorder). An uncontrollable need to engage in repetitive behaviors and mental acts include persistent hand-washing (OCD), constantly looking in the mirror (body dysmorphic disorder), and engaging in efforts to acquire new possessions (hoarding disorder).
psychological state lasting from a few seconds to several days, during which one relives a traumatic event and behaves as though the event were occurring at that moment
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
experiencing a profoundly traumatic event leads to a constellation of symptoms that include intrusive and distressing memories of the event, avoidance of stimuli connected to the event, negative emotional states, feelings of detachment from others, irritability, proneness toward outbursts, hypervigilance, and a tendency to startle easily; these symptoms must occur for at least one month
Symptoms of PTSD include all of the following except ________.
a. intrusive thoughts or memories of a traumatic event
b. avoidance of things that remind one of a traumatic event
d. physical complaints that cannot be explained medically
Which of the following elevates the risk for developing PTSD?
a. severity of the trauma
b. frequency of the trauma
c. high levels of intelligence
d. social support
List some of the risk factors associated with the development of PTSD following a traumatic event.
Risk factors associated with PTSD include gender (female), low socioeconomic status, low intelligence, personal and family history of mental illness, and childhood abuse or trauma. Personality factors, including neuroticism and somatization, may also serve as risk factors. Also, certain versions of a gene that regulates serotonin may constitute a diathesis.
bipolar and related disorders
group of mood disorders in which mania is the defining feature
mood disorder characterized by mood states that vacillate between depression and mania
one of a group of mood disorders in which depression is the defining feature
flight of ideas
symptom of mania that involves an abruptly switching in conversation from one topic to another
cognitive theory of depression proposing that a style of thinking that perceives negative life events as having stable and global causes leads to a sense of hopelessness and then to depression
major depressive disorder
commonly referred to as "depression" or "major depression," characterized by sadness or loss of pleasure in usual activities, as well other symptoms
state of extreme elation and agitation
period in which an individual experiences mania, characterized by extremely cheerful and euphoric mood, excessive talkativeness, irritability, increased activity levels, and other symptoms
one of a group of disorders characterized by severe disturbances in mood and emotions; the categories of mood disorders listed in the DSM-5 are bipolar and related disorders and depressive disorders
subtype of depression that applies to women who experience an episode of major depression either during pregnancy or in the four weeks following childbirth
persistent depressive disorder
depressive disorder characterized by a chronically sad and melancholy mood
in depression, tendency to repetitively and passively dwell on one's depressed symptoms, their meanings, and their consequences
subtype of depression in which a person experiences the symptoms of major depressive disorder only during a particular time of year
thoughts of death by suicide, thinking about or planning suicide, or making a suicide attempt
death caused by intentional, self-directed injurious behavior
Common symptoms of major depressive disorder include all of the following except ________.
a. periods of extreme elation and euphoria
b. difficulty concentrating and making decisions
c. loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities
d. psychomotor agitation and retardation
Suicide rates are ________ among men than among women, and they are ________ during the winter holiday season than during the spring months.
a. higher; higher
b. lower; lower
c. higher; lower
d. lower; higher
Describe several of the factors associated with suicide.
The risk of suicide is high among people with mental health problems, including mood disorders and substance abuse problems. The risk is also high among those who have made a prior suicide attempt and who have lethal means to commit suicide. Rates of suicide are higher among men and during the springtime, and they are higher in the mountain states of the west than in other regions of the United States. Research has also shown that suicides can have a "contagious" effect on people, and that it is associated with serotonin dysfunction.
decreased reactivity to the environment; includes posturing and catatonic stupor
belief that is contrary to reality and is firmly held, despite contradictory evidence
disorganized/abnormal motor behavior
highly unusual behaviors and movements (such as child-like behaviors), repeated and purposeless movements, and displaying odd facial expressions and gestures
disjointed and incoherent thought processes, usually detected by what a person says
theory of schizophrenia that proposes that an overabundance of dopamine or dopamine receptors is responsible for the onset and maintenance of schizophrenia
characterized by beliefs that one holds special power, unique knowledge, or is extremely important
perceptual experience that occurs in the absence of external stimulation, such as the auditory hallucinations (hearing voices) common to schizophrenia
characterized by decreases and absences in certain normal behaviors, emotions, or drives, such as an expressionless face, lack of motivation to engage in activities, reduced speech, lack of social engagement, and inability to experience pleasure
characterized by beliefs that others are out to harm them
in schizophrenia, one of the early minor symptoms of psychosis
severe disorder characterized by major disturbances in thought, perception, emotion, and behavior with symptoms that include hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking and behavior, and negative symptoms
belief that something highly unusual is happening to one's body or internal organs
one of the fluid-filled cavities within the brain
Clifford falsely believes that the police have planted secret cameras in his home to monitor his every movement. Clifford's belief is an example of ________.
a. a delusion
b. a hallucination
d. a negative symptom
A study of adoptees whose biological mothers had schizophrenia found that the adoptees were most likely to develop schizophrenia ________.
a. if their childhood friends later developed schizophrenia
b. if they abused drugs during adolescence
c. if they were raised in a disturbed adoptive home environment
d. regardless of whether they were raised in a healthy or disturbed home environment
Why is research following individuals who show prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia so important?
This kind of research is important because it enables investigators to identify potential warning signs that predict the onset of schizophrenia. Once such factors are identified, interventions may be developed.
dissociative disorder in which people feel detached from the self (depersonalization), and the world feels artificial and unreal (derealization)
dissociative disorder characterized by an inability to recall important personal information, usually following an extremely stressful or traumatic experience
group of DSM-5 disorders in which the primary feature is that a person becomes dissociated, or split off, from his or her core sense of self, resulting in disturbances in identity and memory
symptom of dissociative amnesia in which a person suddenly wanders away from one's home and experiences confusion about his or her identity
dissociative identity disorder
dissociative disorder (formerly known as multiple personality disorder) in which a person exhibits two or more distinct, well-defined personalities or identities and experiences memory gaps for the time during which another identity emerged
Dissociative amnesia involves ________.
a. memory loss following head trauma
b. memory loss following stress
c. feeling detached from the self
d. feeling detached from the world
Dissociative identity disorder mainly involves ________.
d. different personalities
The prevalence of most psychological disorders has increased since the 1980s. However, as discussed in this section, scientific publications regarding dissociative amnesia peaked in the mid-1990s but then declined steeply through 2003. In addition, no fictional or nonfictional description of individuals showing dissociative amnesia following a trauma exists prior to 1800. How would you explain this phenomenon?
Several explanations are possible. One explanation is that perhaps there is little scientific interest in this phenomenon, maybe because it has yet to gain consistent scientific acceptance. Another possible explanation is that perhaps the dissociative amnesia was fashionable at the time publications dealing with this topic peaked (1990s); perhaps since that time it has become less fashionable.
antisocial personality disorder
characterized by a lack of regard for others' rights, impulsivity, deceitfulness, irresponsibility, and lack of remorse over misdeeds
borderline personality disorder
instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and mood, as well as impulsivity; key features include intolerance of being alone and fear of abandonment, unstable relationships, unpredictable behavior and moods, and intense and inappropriate anger
group of DSM-5 disorders characterized by an inflexible and pervasive personality style that differs markedly from the expectations of one's culture and causes distress and impairment; people with these disorders have a personality style that frequently brings them into conflict with others and disrupts their ability to develop and maintain social relationships
Imagine that a child has a genetic vulnerability to antisocial personality disorder. How might this child's environment shape the likelihood of developing this personality disorder?
The environment is likely to be very instrumental in determining the likelihood of developing antisocial personality disorder. Research has shown that adverse family environments (e.g., divorce or marital problems, legal problems, and drug use) are connected to antisocial personality disorder, particularly if one is genetically vulnerable. Beyond one's family environment, peer group delinquency and community variables (e.g., economic deprivation, community disorganization, drug use, and the presence of adult antisocial models) heighten the risk of violent behavior.
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
childhood disorder characterized by inattentiveness and/or hyperactive, impulsive behavior
autism spectrum disorder
childhood disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction and communication, and repetitive patterns of behavior or interests
one of the disorders that are first diagnosed in childhood and involve developmental problems in academic, intellectual, social functioning
Which of the following is not a primary characteristic of ADHD?
a. short attention span
b. difficulty concentrating and distractibility
c. restricted and fixated interest
d. excessive fidgeting and squirming
One of the primary characteristics of autism spectrum disorder is ________.
b. difficulty relating to others
c. short attention span
d. intense and inappropriate interest in others
Compare the factors that are important in the development of ADHD with those that are important in the development of autism spectrum disorder.
Genetic factors appear to play a major role in the development of both ADHD and autism spectrum disorder: studies show higher rates of concordance among identical twins than among fraternal twins for both disorders. In ADHD, genes that regulate dopamine have been implicated; in autism spectrum disorder, de novo genetic mutations appear to be important. Imaging studies suggest that abnormalities in the frontal lobes may be important in the development of ADHD. Parenting practices are not connected to the development of either disorder. Although environmental toxins are generally unimportant in the development of ADHD, exposure to cigarette smoke during the prenatal period has been linked to the development of the disorder; a number of environmental factors are thought to be associated with an increased risk for autism spectrum disorder: exposure to pollutants, an urban versus rural residence, and vitamin D deficiency. Although some people continue to believe that MMR vaccinations can cause autism spectrum disorder (due to an influential paper that was later retracted), there is no scientific evidence that supports this assertion.
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