NTR 355 Exam 2


Terms in this set (...)

interference that distorts message
nonverbal symbols
serve as a reminder of message, such as employee handbook
delivery style
appropriate for audience and topic
complexity of message
may have to simplify
many pathways
physical environment
when to communicate
Personal characteristics
-Artifacts: may convey unintended message (like a messy office with no place to sit)
-Proxemics: spatial relationship of individuals
-body language
-physical characteristics (like body size)
-touching behavior
cross-cultural communication
-rate, pitch, volume of voice
-chronemics: attitude towards time
-proxemics: physical space
-eye contact
-body contact: touch
body movements: posture, gestures, facial expressions
Barriers to communication
-Hearing what we expect to hear
-Ignoring conflicting information
-differing perception
-evaluating the source
-interpreting words differently
-ignoring nonverbal cues
-becoming emotional
-know-it-all attitude
Techniques for improved communication
-Awareness of symbolic meaning
-many channels
-face to face communication
-sensitivity to receiver
-reinforcing words with action
-careful timing
-simple language
ways to improve listening skills
-put other person at ease
-remove distractions
-ask questions
-avoid criticism
-stop talking
Direction of communication within an organization
-Downward: following chain of command, such as pay inserts, newsletters
-Upward: following chain of command: suggestion boxes, grievance procedures, open door policy
-Horizontal: between departments such as nursing and foodservice
-Diagonal: flow of info between diagonally placed units
-Informal: grapevine
Types of Communication
Oral: used when instruction is simple, quick action is needed, or low literacy

Written: used when a policy or some other authority is quoted, or employees are to be held accountable

Nonverbal: used for low literacy, visual learners, or to reinforce written and oral communications
Communication choices
-One-on-one: Advantage: immediate feedback
Disadvantage: not always possible or practical

Advantage: can be informal, can focus message, includes nonverbal messages
Disadvantage: time consuming, small talk

-Telephone call:
Advantage: quick, readily available
Disadvantage: Fewer nonverbal cues than when in person, phone tag

Advantages: gets message to many, can provide feedback, involve participants, give feeling of belonging, save time
Disadvantage: may be impersonal, or can be waste of time.

Advantages: provides documentation, can be well thought out and organized
Disadvantage: no immediate feedback, time consuming

-Posted notice:
Advantage: quick, reaches many people
Disadvantage: may not be read, no immediate feedback
the process in which two or more parties make offers, counteroffers, and concessions to reach agreement
Common examples: distributive bargaining, integrative bargaining
Responsive listening
AKA Active listening
Two components: identify feelings expressed
Feedback of content

Reasons to use: Develop rapport
Cathartic effect
Types of Decision
Programmed and Non-programmed
Programmed decision
routine, follow policies, procedures, norm, usually deal with concrete probems
Non-programmed decision
situations with no precedent, more judgement needed, decisions may take longer
First line managers and supervisors make more of these types of decisions
Top managers make more of these types of decisions
Steps in decision making process
1. recognize and define problem
2. identify alternatives
3. evaluate alternatives
4. select the best alternative-cost, quality, space
5. implement the chosen alternative
6. follow up and evaluate outcome
Decision making tools
- decision tree
- cost effectiveness
- network diagram
- gantt chart
Decision tree
technique for assessing consequences of a sequence of decision with reference to a particular problem
Cost effectiveness
provides a comparison of alternative courses of action in terms of cost and effectiveness
Example: from scratch vs. heat and serve
network diagram
CPM or PERT: depicts flow and sequence of defined activities and events.
Use a graph to plan, schedule, control large projects, such as remodeling.
Designed to keep project on time
PERT = program evaluation and review technique. Circles are events. Straight lines are activities. Several activities can happen at same time. Time calculated for each activity. path with longest time is the critical path.
gantt chart
movement of work through time
Queuing theory
balance cost of having people wait vs. cost of expansion
identify bottlenecks
group decision making
advantages: leads to greater acceptance of decision, better implementation, helps subordinates to grow and develop
Disadvantages: takes more time, group think: harmony more important than sound decision
risky shift: members willing to take on more risk because part of a group
situation in which members of a group feel they must accept position of dominant member
De Facto Decision
One in which no dissent is expressed
disinterest, lack of urgency, lack of assertiveness
Nominal group technique
Four step process to a group decision in which each member contributes ideas:
Step 1: present problem, ask group to write ideas independently
Step 2: members present ideas to group
Step 3: group discussion
Step 4: Ideas ranked independently

Then, decision is based on aggregate ranking.
Group meets face to face.
Delphi Technique
Similar to nominal group technique, but group does not meet.
Usually involves a panel of experts who are developing a consensus.
Focus group
created to gather qualitative information, good for customer feedback,
10-20 people are gathered to discuss some aspect-new menu ideas, advertising.
Positive discipline
newer concept
1. reinforces conduct wanted- establishes minimum standards of performance and behavior
2. corrects undesirable behavior
3. helps employee develop self-control
Common discipline problems
-availability for work
-job performance
-personal conduct
Availability for work
-Unexcused absence
-chronic absenteeism
-excessive tardiness
-leaving without permission
-job abandonment
-late from breaks
Job performance
-failure to perform job duties
-failure to follow procedures
-inappropriate time card punching
-inappropriate eating on job
-failure to use safe devices
-failure to report injuries
-falsifying work records
Personal conduct
-substance abuse-alcohol, drugs
-smoking in restricted areas
-fighting/workplace violence
-dishonesty-theft, lying on application
-abusive or threatening language/gestures
-destruction of property
-possession of drugs, alcohol, guns
-abuse of privileges
-personal hygiene
-name tag
Steps in counseling process
1. identify problem
what is the desired performance? what is the actual performance? focus on specifics
clarify your expectations
Did you tell employee desired performance? how does his performance measure up? be specific.

2. analyze problem:
what is impact on organization if problem isn't solved? (scheduled production harder to achieve, others have more work, affects morale and motivation)
what are consequences to employee if he doesn't change his performance? (use up sick leave, lose pay because scheduled for fewer hours or dock pay, be disciplined)

3. discuss with employee:
goals--> help employee see that a problem exists and to develop a solution. state problem in terms of desired performance. Explain why problem is worth solving- impacts and consequences, gain agreement that there is a problem. give employee chance to respond. listen.
4. document the problem, history, discussion
5. follow-up
Recognize any improvement. Have an open door policy
Agree with valid criticism
shows hearing and respecting different viewpoint
Ex: "You have a good point, there." OR "What you are saying may very well be true, however..."
Stick to your agenda
dismiss irrelevant comments
redirect or refocus discussion
"We can talk about such and such later. Right now we need to talk about your tardiness."
Effective discipline is like a hot stove
-Advance warning - employee knows the expectations and consequences ahead of time
-Impersonal (don't play favorites)
Progressive Discipline - know sequence
use coaching (unrecorded oral warning) first. If it fails then:
-recorde oral warning - first formal step
-with notation in personnel file
-written warning/reprimand - formal doc. in employee file
-Suspension - takes place in timely manner
-can be decision day at home without pay
-can occur in progressive discipline if a similar disciplinary event happens again within a specified time frame
Suspension pitfalls to avoid
Don't wait until convenient due to staffing issues-make it timely
-don't allow employee to make up lost wages (by giving extra shifts) once suspension is over.
Guidelines for termination
follow discipline policy- get approvals
-schedule a cool down
-hold in private. have a witness.
-keep meeting brief. state reasons.
-state decision is final
-discuss final paycheck
-retrieve company property
-do not touch the departing person
Current litigation trends
-negligent retention
-someone violates policy, but boss lets it continue without disciplining OR changing policy
-negligent supervision
MBWA important (Management By Walking Around)
-failure to properly train
-evidence of training is important
function of recruiting, selection, training, development, termination
seeking and attracting supply of people from which qualified candidates can be selected
labor market
pool of people available with needed skills
Sources of applicants
promote from within
-advangages: helps morale and motivation, familiar with organization
Peter principle - managers promoted to level of incompetence, inbreeding of ideas or complacency.
External sources of applicants
-word of mouth (Referrals)
-employment agencies
-help wanted in newspaper
-professional org job banks
-job fairs
-ads in trade journals/websites
-texas workforce commission
-college placement services
-files in the HR department
Steps in the selection process
Application & Screening
Checking Background
Hiring Decision
Physical Exam
Application Form
Indicates applicant interest
Provides baseline information
Becomes part of personnel file
Shows applicant's attention to detail
Main purpose is to screen for interviews
-Structured interviews
-Unstructured interviews
Speed Interviewing
Structured Interviews
Same questions of all applicants
-common for lower level jobs
-standardizes information
-decreases subjectivity
-assures asking all important questions
-reduces risk of legal charges of discrimination
Unstructured Interviews
-Broad questions
-Increased subjectivity
-May be difficult to compare across candidates
Focus on the past so employer can attempt to predict future behavior.
Example: describe a time when you didn't get along with a colleague, OR Tell me about your biggest professional failure.
focus on future performance
Example: situation is suggested and prospective employee is asked how they would handle it.
Employers are looking for problem solving skills: identify the problem, describe the solution and outline the action you would take.
Behavioral Interview: STAR responses
-S/T - Situation/Task
-what were the surrounding circumstances?
-who was involved? obstacles?

-what was your role?
-how did you react to the situation?
-why did you take the stated action/s?

-what was the impact or outcome of your actions?
used mainly in the consulting industry.
Can be quantitative in nature
Example: how many gallos of ketchup do New York City McDonald's restaurants use?

-Talk through your analysis and answer. Employer is looking for insight into your thought process.
You are given a topic or issue and have 15 minutes to pan a presentation and 15 minutes to give it.
Example: what are the primary issues and benefits of room service style meal delivery in hospitals.
-Think fast, outline issue, identify key points (not too many), come up with examples to support your points.
prospective employee is interviewed by 4 or 5 people at once.
Each person may be covering a specific area
-Use techniques from behavioral, situational or case as needed. Good eye contact, lean forward and engage in the conversation, and be sure to address the question that is asked.
Speed Interviewing
You have a brief - 5 minute - chat with each interviewer.
-It is likely that each interviewer is covering a specific topic or characteristic
-They can employ behavioral or situational techniques.
-Be yourself and sell yourself
Interview questions you should not ask applicants
How old are you?
When did you graduate high school?
Do you have small children or do you plan to have children?
Have your ever had a workers' compensation claim?
What medicines are you taking?
Are you married?
What country were you born in or are you a U.S. citizen?
hiring decision
judgmental approach: what questions would you ask?

Statistical approach: applicants scored on relevant criteria
Why orient?
less stress
better job performance
reduces turnover
In service training
means formal on the job training ('on-the-clock' &&&)
Tell, Show, Do, Review
includes 4 parts: brief lecture (tell), demonstration (show), employee practice (do), review.
Buzz groups
small groups of 2-4 who discuss a specific topic- usually report back to larger group
Value of performance appraisal
-feedback for both you and the employee
-basis for encouraging improved performance
-provides data for future job assignments and compensations
How often? at end of probationary period, then annually, often on anniversary of hire date.

Use sandwich method: positive negative positive
subjective evaluations
watch out for your stereotypes. focus on performance
halo effect
allowing one excellent aspect of employee's performance to influence all
horns effect
a poor rating in one area may color ratings in other areas
Error of central tendency
rating everyone about the same, avoiding extremes
severity error
everyone is rated poorly
leniency error
being too generous
-often used with hard to manage employees
-problem if employee is fired later
recency error
focusing too much on performance in recent event. keep a log.