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Crim Exam #2

Trait Theory
criminality is a product of abnormal biological or psychological traits, began with LOMBROSO'S "born criminal"
NOTES: biology environment and learning are interdependent factors, biological and genetic conditions may influence how social behaviors are learned, BOOK: the view that human behavior is motivated by inborn biological urges to survive and preserve the species
Contemporary Trait Theory
NO single biological or psychological attribute can explain criminality, NOT all criminals are "abnormal"/very few "abnormal" people commit serious crimes, traits may interact with environment or may influence behavior independently
Biochemical Conditions-DIET
Too few vitamins and minerals, and too much sugar and fat have been linked to 1. ADHD-irritability, 2. Depression, 3. Schizophrenia and Dementia, REACTIVE HYPOGLYCEMIA- antisocial behavioral reactions to low blood sugar
Biochemical Conditions- HORMONES
ANDROGENS- (testosterone) linked to mood swings and aggressive impulsive behavior, MENSTRUAL CYCLES- PMS more crimes are committed by women during their premenstrual stage
Neurological Conditions
Criminals often suffer brian impairments, 1. ASPERGER'S among serial killers, 2. BRAIN abnormalities among violent offenders, 3. ADHD and conduct disorder often result in poor school performance which may lead to delinquency
a child shows a developmentally inappropriate lack of attention, along with impulsivity and hyperactivity, about 3% of US children, most often boys are believed to suffer from this disorder.
Intergenerational Crime
Criminal fathers produce criminal sons who then produce criminal grandchildren
Parental Deviance
CAMBRIDGE YOUTH STUDY: 8% of sons of non criminal fathers were chronic offenders, 37% of sons of criminal fathers were chronic offenders, Adopted children were more likely to become criminals if their biological fathers were criminals, pairs of identical twins were more likely to BOTH show criminal tendencies than fraternal twins
Cheater Theory
a subpopulation of men has evolved with genes that incline them toward extremely low parental involvement
Evolutionary Perspective
evolutionary traits make people aggressive or predisposed to commit crime, competition for scarce resources leads to crime, reproductive needs result in gender roles and explain gender differences in crime, MALES- aggressive, mate with many partners, most aggressive males had most impact on gene pool
Psychological Trait Theory- PSYCHODYNAMIC
FREUD- components of personality: 1. ID- unconscious biological drives, instant gratification, 2. EGO- conscious self, tries to regulate behavior, 3. SUPEREGO- moral standards of parents, society, a healthy EGO can resolve and manage conflicts between ID and SUPEREGO, criminals have a weak EGO or underdeveloped SUPEREGO which results in frustration/ aggression, conformity and they may not understand consequences of their actions
Psychological Trait Theory- BEHAVIORAL
the view that all human behavior is learned through a process of social reinforcement (rewards and punishments), learned violent behavior is triggered by environment events
Social Learning Theory
the view that people learn to be aggressive by observing others acting aggressively to achieve some goal or being rewarded for violent acts
Psychological Trait Theory- COGNITIVE
psychological perspective that focuses on mental processes: how people perceive and mentally represent the world around them and solve problems, people who cannot understand cause/effect or who are of lower IQ may not reason well
What predicted male delinquency in Deborah Denno's study?
Lead poisoning
The lowest social stratum in any country, whose members lack the education and skills needed to function successfully in modern society
Antisocial Personality Traits
A combination of traits, such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, hedonism and inability to empathize with others, that make a person prone to deviant behavior and violence; also referred to as sociopath or psychopathic personality. SOCIOPATH- problems originate from environment, PSYCHOPATH- problems originate in ones mind
Social Disorganization Theory
Focuses on the breakdown of institutions such as the family, school, and employment in inner-city neighborhoods
Strain Theory
Sees crime as a function of the conflict between people's goals and the means available to obtain them
Cultural Deviance Theory
Sees strain and social disorganization together resulting in a unique lower-class culture that conflicts with social norms
Components of Social Disorganization
1. Deteriorated neighborhoods, 2. Inadequate social control, 3. Law violating gangs and groups, 4. Conflicting social values
Shaw and McKay Findings
Crime is a product of transitional neighborhoods, 1. High population turnover, 2. Little group identity or familiarity, 3. Few opportunities for traditional paths to success, 4. Many "successful" adults are criminals
Concentration Effect
As working-and middle-class families flee inner-city poverty areas, the most disadvantaged population is consolidated in urban ghettos
Collective Efficacy
Social control exerted by cohesive communities based on mutual trust, including intervention in the supervision of children and maintenance of public order
Components of Collective Efficacy- INFORMAL SOCIAL CONTROL
Some elements of collective efficacy operate on the primary or private level and involve peers, families, or relatives
Components of Collective Efficacy- INSTITUTIONAL SOCIAL CONTROL
Social institutions such as schools and churches cannot work effectively in a climate of alienation and mistrust
Components of Collective Efficacy- PUBLIC SOCIAL CONTROL
Stable neighborhoods are also able to arrange for external sources of social control
View that anomie results when socially defined goals (such as wealth and power) are universally mandated but access to legitimate means (such as education and job opportunities) is stratified by class and status
Merton's Strain Theory 5 Types
1. Conformity- goals and means, 2. Innovator- goals but no means, 3. Ritualist- no goals but means, 4. Retreatist/Revolutionary- no goals or means 5. Rebellion- substitute an alternative set of goals and means for conventional ones
Institutional Anomie
The view that anomie pervades U.S. culture because the drive for material wealth dominates and undermines social and community values
Relative Deprivation
Envy, mistrust, and aggression resulting from perceptions of economic and social inequality
General Strain
The view that multiple sources of strain interact with an individuals emotional traits and responses to produce criminality (Agnew)
Status Frustration (Cohen's)
A form of culture conflict experienced by lower-class youths because social conditions prevent them from achieving success as defined by the larger society
Cohen's 3 Types of Boys
1. Corner Boy- not a chroinc delinquent but may be a truant who engages in petty or status offenses, such as precocious sex and recreational drug abuse, 2. College Boy- embraces the cultural and social values of the middle class, 3. Delinquent Boy- adopt a set of norms and principles that directly oppose middle class values
The process of human development and enculturation it includes: 1. Learning the culture, 2. Intellectual social and emotional development, 3. Development of self concept, 4. Learning and preparing for specific roles
Who developed the Differential Association Theory?
Edwin H. Sutherland
Differential Association Theory
The view that people commit crime when their social learning leads them to perceive more definitions favoring crime than favoring conventional behavior
Neutralization Theory
The view that law violators learn to neutralize conventional values and attitudes, enabling them to drift back and forth between criminal and conventional behavior
Social Control Theory
People commit crime when social bonds are weakened or broken, most people obey laws because of 1. SELF CONTROL- strong moral sense that renders someone in capable of hurting others and violating social norms 2. COMMITMENT TO CONFORMITY- A strong personal investment in conventional institutions, individuals, and processes that prevent people from engaging in behavior that might jeopardize their reputation and achievements
Social Reaction (LABELING) Theory
The view that people become criminals when labeled as such and when they accept the label as a personal identity
Techniques of Neutralization
Methods of rationalizing deviant behavior, such as denying responsibility or blaming the victim 1. Criminals sometimes voice guilt over their illegal acts 2. Offenders frequently respect and admire honest, law abiding persons 3. Criminals define whom they can victimize 4. Criminals are not immune to the demands of conformity
4 Elements of Social Bond (Hirschi)
The ties that bind people to society, including relationships with friends, family, neighbors, teachers, and employers. Elements of the social bond include 1. Commitment, 2. Attachment, 3. Involvement, 4. Belief
Lemert's Primary and Secondary Deviance
PRIMARY DEVIANCE- a norm violation or crime with little or no long term influence on the violator, SECONDARY DEVIANCE- a norm violation or crime that comes to the attention of significant others or social control agents, who apply a negative label with long term consequences for the violators self identity and social interactions
Successful Degradation Ceremony
A course of action or ritual in which someones identity is publicly redefined and destroyed and they are thereafter viewed as socially unacceptable
Deviance Amplification
Process whereby secondary deviance pushes offenders out of mainstream society and locks them into an escalating cycle of deviance, apprehension, labeling and criminal self identity
Diversion Program
Programs of rehabilitation that remove offenders from the normal channels of the criminal justice process, thus avoiding the stigma of a criminal label
Critical Criminology
The view that crime is a product of the capitalist system, Critical Criminology is aimed at identifying "real" crime in U.S. society, such as profiteering, sexism, and racism, considered to be Marxist or radical
Basic Concerns of Critical Criminology
Deeply concerned about the current state of the American political system and the creation of what they consider to be an American Empire abroad
Surplus Value
The difference between what workers produce and what they are paid, which goes to business owners as profits
Displacement of workers, pushing them outside the economic and social mainstream
Instrumental Theory
Sees criminal law and the criminal justice system as capitalist instruments for controlling the lower class
Structural Theory
Based on the belief that criminal law and the criminal justice system are means of defending and preserving the capitalist system
Left Realism
Approach that sees crime as a function of relative deprivation under capitalism and favors pragmatic, community-based crime prevention and control
Criticism of Left Realism
Criticized by critical thinkers as legitimizing the existing power structure: by supporting existing definitions of law and justice, it suggests that the "deviants" and not the capitalist system cause society's problems
Critical Feminism
Approach that explains both victimization and criminality among women in terms of gender inequality, patriarchy and the exploitation of women under capitalism
Hagan's 2 Family Factors Affecting Delinquency
PATERNALISTIC FAMILIES- fathers assume the traditional role of breadwinners, while mothers tend to have menial jobs or remain at home to supervise domestic matters, EGALITARIAN FAMILIES- those in which the husband and wife share similar positions of power at home and in the workplace--daughters gain a kind of freedom that reflects reduced parental control
Principles of Restorative Justice
1. Crime is an offense against human relationships, 2. Victims and the community are central to justice processes, 3. First priority is to assist victims, 4. Second priority is to restore the community, 5. Offender has personal responsibility to the victim and to the community
Characteristics of Restorative Justice
1. Offender takes responsibility for harming people and damaging relationships, 2. Meeting and Reconciliation between victim and offender, 3. Give offender a stake in the community (service), 4. Make restitution (monetary and symbolic), 5. Requires community support, RESTORATIVE JUSTICE HAS BEEN USED IN ASIA FOR CENTURIES