-The independent variable is the one that is changed by the scientist
-The dependent variables are the things that the scientist focuses his or her observations on to see how they respond to the change made to the independent variable
-In a negative correlation, the variables move in inverse, or opposite, directions. In other words, as one variable increases, the other variable decreases
ex. there is a negative correlation between self-esteem and depression. In other words, the higher your self-esteem, the lower your feelings of depression.
- positive correlation, it means the variables move in the same direction. This means that as one variable increases, so does the other one.
ex. In the example above, we noted that the students who attended school more frequently had the highest GPAs. As the days present at school decreased, so did the GPA.
Physiological needs: These are the needs necessary to maintain life: oxygen, food, and water. These basic needs are required by all animals and are the primary focus of infants.
Safety needs: When an individual's physiological needs are met, the focus typically shifts to safety needs, which may include health, freedom from war, and financial security.
Community and belonging: If safety and physiological needs are met, a person will focus on the need for a community and love. These needs are typically met by friends, family, and romantic partners.
Esteem: Esteem is necessary for self-actualization, and a person may work to achieve esteem once needs for love and a sense of belonging are met. Self-confidence and acceptance from others are important components of this need.
Self-actualization: Self-actualization is the ability to meet one's true potential, and the necessary components of self-actualization vary from person to person.
1. Liking in this case is not used in a trivial sense. Sternberg says that this intimate liking characterizes true friendships, in which a person feels a bondedness, a warmth, and a closeness with another but not intense
passion or long-term commitment.
2. Infatuated love is often what is felt as"love at first sight. "But without the
intimacy and the commitment components of love, infatuated love may
3. Empty love: Sometimes, a stronger love deteriorates into empty love,in
which the commitment remains, but the intimacy and passion have died. In cultures in which arranged marriages are common, relationships often
begin as empty love.
4. Romantic love: Romantic lovers are bonded emotionally(asinliking)and
physically through passionate arousal.
5. Companionate love is often found in marriages in which the passion has
gone out of the relationship, but a deep affection and commitment remain. Companionate love is generally a personal relation you build with somebody you share your life with, but with no sexual or physical desire.
It is stronger than friendship because of the extra element of commitment. The love ideally shared between family members is a form of companionate love, as is the love between deep friends or those who
spend a lot of time together in any asexual but friendly relationship.
6. Fatuous love can be exemplified by awhirl wind courtship and marriage
in which a commitment is motivated largely by passion, without the
stabilizing influence of intimacy.
7. Consummate love is the complete form of love, representing the ideal
relationship toward which many people strive but which apparently few achieve. Sternberg cautions that maintaining a consummate love may be even harder than achieving it. He stresses the importance of translating the components of love into action. "Without expression," he warns, "even the greatest of loves can die" (1987, p.341). Consummate love may not be permanent. For example, if passion is lost over time, it may change into companionate love.
Primary reinforcers are biological. Food, drink, and pleasure are the principal examples of primary reinforcers. But, most human reinforcers are secondary, or conditioned. Examples include money, grades in schools, and tokens.
Secondary reinforcers acquire their power via a history of association with primary reinforcers or other secondary reinforcers. For example, if I told you that dollars were no longer going to be used as money, then dollars would lose their power as a secondary reinforcer.
Here's an example of how a secondary reinforcer is established. Let's train a dog to sit. First we would introduce the discriminative stimulus, the word "sit." We could just say "sit" and when the dog sits, we would give it some food. The food would be the primary reinforcer. Immediately after we gave it the food we would say, "good dog." "Good dog" is our secondary reinforcer of praise. We would then repeat the above process many times. Gradually, we would give the food less often, but the dog would continue to sit when we told it to. The words "good dog" gradually became a secondary reinforcer.