Honors Biology Study Guide for Genetics
Terms in this set (28)
What is the basic unit of DNA?
Sequence of DNA bases contains all of the genetic information in for our body to make up who we are and all the proteins in our body
What is the importance of the sequence of the DNA bases?
DNA puts its code into RNA, messenger (mRNA)
reading the code and making proteins by transferring (tRNA) the correct Amino Acid to create correct protein
Thymine goes with ___________ in DNA
Cytosine goes with ____________ in DNA
__________ replaced Thymine in RNA
To "evolve" the offspring of the parents, such as deleting a nucleotide that contains a genetic disease
What is the point of mutation?
It will change the meaning of a gene of the offspring
What is the point of mutation?
checks if the cell is big enough and if the environment is favorable
What does the G1 phase (first gap phase) of the cell cycle do?
replicates the DNA
What does the S phase (synthesis phase) of the cell cycle do?
the cell continues to grow and prepares to split.
What does the G2 phase (second gap phase) of the cell cycle do?
G1 phase (first gap phase), S phase (synthesis phase), and G2 phase (second gap phase)
What are the three subphases of interphase?
the nucleus and its contents are evenly distributed
What does the mitosis phase of the cell cycle do?
the cytoplasm is divided into two
What does the cytokinesis phase of the cell cycle do?
During the S phase (synthesis phase)
When does DNA replication occur?
Human cells have two sets of 23 chromosomes, total of 46 chromosomes. Gametes have one set of 23 chromosomes, total of 23 chromosomes
How many chromosomes are in human cells? The gametes?
the complex of DNA and proteins that constitutes eukaryotic chromosomes; often used to refer to the diffuse, very extended form taken by chromosomes when a cell is not diving
a threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell and is most visible during mitosis and meiosis also, the main gene-carrying structure of a prokaryotic cell. consists of chromatin, a combination of DNA and protein
one of the two identical parts of a duplicated chromosome in a eukaryotic cell
Two identical daughter cells
What cell types are formed from mitosis?
Meiosis reduces the chromosome number from diploid to haploid. It must happen in two phases because it takes one phase to separate the homologous chromosomes and another phase to separate the sister chromatids
What is the purpose of meiosis? Why must it happen in TWO phases?
four haploid daughter cells
What cell types are formed from meiosis?
in an organism that reproduces sexually, a cell containing two homologous sets of chromosomes, one set inherited from each parent; a 2n cell
in the life cycle of an organism that reproduces sexually, a cell containing a single set of chromosomes; a n cell
Because crossing over needs to occur during meiosis and tetrads allow that to happen
Why are tetrads necessary?
Because crossing over needs to occur during meiosis and synapsis pairs up two homologous chromosomes to allow crossing over to happen
Why is synapsis necessary?
this can show the number of chromosomes in a person's DNA, it could trace genetic diseases such as trisomy 21, or down syndrome