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178 terms

midterm

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What was the first Western music to be preserved in written notation rather than passed down by oral tradition?
religous
By turning to the various soloists and sections during a performance, what does the conductor convey, not only to the orchestra, but also to the audience?
essential lines and themes of the music
A---- is a type of music for orchestra that is divided into several pieces that each possesses its own tempo and mood.
symphony
A short, distinctive musical figure that can stand by itself, and often unifies entire compositions is a:
musical motive
What term do musicians use to describe when the volume of sound increases (gets louder)?
crescendo
A---- occurs when two or more pitches sound simultaneously.
chord
What term describes performers plucking the strings of their instruments instead of using a bow to generate sound?
pizzicato
. Identify the term that is synonymous with "tone poem."
symphonic poem -tries to capture in music the emotions of a play
A----- is a large, independent section of music in a major instrumental composition
movement
. The term, referring to the organization of time in music, gives shape to the pitches of the melody
rhythm
What is the term for the even pulse that divides the passing of musical time into equal segments
beat
When beats are gathered into regular groups, what is the result?
meter
The downbeat is:
first beat
What is the name for the last beat in any given measure?
upbeat
What is the term for an upbeat that occurs at the very beginning of a composition?
pickup
What is the term for the emphasis or stress placed on a musical tone or chord?
accent
Which term describes placing an accent on a weak beat or between the beats?
syncopation
Which term means the speed at which beats progress?
tempo
What is the English word that means to slow the tempo of the music?
ritard
Simple series of pitches arranged to form a cohesive, pleasing musical line
melody
relative position, high or low, of a sound
pitch
The---- is a horizontal grid onto which are put the symbols of musical notation.
staff
What symbol indicates the range used for lower-sounding instruments and male voices?
bass clef
Which symbol raises a note to the next higher neighboring tone?
sharp
What is the name for the central pitch around which melodies gravitate and on which they generally end?
tonic
The arrangement of pitches within the octave that ascends and descends according to a fixed pattern is known as:
scale
What is the term describing the change in tonal center from one key to another?
modulation
Which scale adds five more notes to the typical Western scale, adding color and richness to a melody?
chromatic scale
. A---- is a dependent idea within a melody, much like a dependent clause within a grammatical sentence.
phrase
The element that adds depth and dimension to music as well as providing support and accompaniment to the melody is
harmony
What is a unit of two or more pitches that sound at the same time?
chord
A---- is the basic chord in music; it consists of three pitches arranged in a specific manner.
triad
Identify the term that describes the distance between different notes.
interval
On which note of the scale is the dominant triad always built?
the fifth
Which chord tends to move to the tonic at the end of musical phrases, helping create the strong effect of a cadence?
dominant triad
What is the term for a purposeful movement of chords?
chord progression
A broken triad, one in which the notes are played in direct succession rather than simultaneously, is known as:
arpeggio
Chords that are----- consist of pitches that sound agreeable and stable.
consonant
The term that refers to the level of volume at which sounds are produced is:
dynamics
The musical term for loud is
fortissimo
The musical term that tells the musician to sing or play softly is
pianissimo
What is the word that indicates a loud, sudden attack on a particular note or chord?
sforzando
[true/false] Musicians traditionally use Italian words for musical dynamics because the terms were first used by composers working in Italy
true
Which term refers to the distinct tone quality of sound?
color
Which term is synonymous with "color"?
timbre
Be able to identify the correct order of voice ranges, from highest to lowest.
Soprano (women)
Mezzo-soprano
Alto (women)
Tenor (men)
baritone
Bass (men)
Which voice category has a range that falls between the high and low male voice categories?
baritone
Identify the term that describes a harp sliding up or down the scale very rapidly
glissando
What is the name of the musical element that refers to the density and disposition of musical lines within a composition?
texture
Which term consists of a single melody without accompaniment?
monophony
The musical texture involving two or more simultaneously sounding lines is called
polyphony
------describes the harmonious opposition of two or more independent musical lines.
counterpoint
What is the texture in which all the voices, or lines, move to new pitches at roughly the same time?
homophony
. The literal definition of this term is "same sounding."
homophony
-----provides a foil to familiar musical material, providing variety, novelty, excitement, and even musical conflict.
contrast
Which musical form consists of one melody played for successive stanzas of text?
strophic
Musicians use the diagram A A 1 A 2 A 3 etc. to indicate the structure of which musical form?
theme and variation
What is the form that alters each successive repetition of the melody?
theme and variation
The letters ABA are typically used to indicate the sections of a composition in ---- form
ternery
Which musical form, illustrated by the pattern ABACA, consists of a musical refrain that alternates with contrasting music?
?????????
---- is the distinctive sound produced by the interaction of the elements of music, creating a special manner of presentation.
style
Identify the style period that falls between the Middle Ages and the Baroque.
Renaissance
The concerto grosso and fugue are two of the principal instrumental genres of the---- period.
late baroque
During which style period was the madrigal a principal genre of composition?
Renaissance
476-1475
Middle ages
1475-1600
Renaissance
1600-1710
Early and middle baroque
1710-1750
Late Baroque
1750-1820
Classical
1820-1900
Romantic
1880-1920
Impressionist
1900-1985
Modern
1945-present
Postmodern
What began in the monasteries of Western Europe around the year 1000?
musical notation
[true/false] Scholars have identified the composer of the chant All the Ends of the Earth ( Viderunt omnes ) as Pope Gregory the Great (540?-604)
false - no one knows who wrote it
Which church administrator decreed that certain chants should be sung on certain days of the liturgical year?
pope gregory the great
Given to the church as a tithe while still a child, this composer of Gregorian chant later founded a convent and gave advice to popes as well as kings.
Hildegard of Bingen
The most important composer of the fourteenth century, this individual was also a gifted poet whose works are considered equivalent to those of his English counterpart, Geoffrey Chaucer.
machaut
The Ordinary of the Mass describes:
chants with unvarying texts that were sung virtually everyday -set by machaut first
Which composer was associated with the illustrious Court of Burgundy?
Guillaume Dufay
The belief that people are something more than a mere conduit for gifts descending from heaven, that they have the capacity to create many things good and beautiful, indeed, the ability to shape their own world. Can be creative sole purpose isn't just to worship gods
humanism
. Which composition belongs to the genre of Renaissance motet?
ave maria
Which term designates a composition sung by a choir without instrumental accompaniment?
a capella
Although this composer was born in northern Europe, he spent most of his early career in Italy, where he excelled in writing motets.
Josquin desprez
The Council of Trent, influenced by the music of -----decided to retain polyphony in the Mass.
Palestrina
When adult male singers use their head voice to produce a high, soprano-like sound, the result is called:
falsetto
. A ------- is a distinctive motive that is sung or played in turn by each voice or instrumental line.
point of imitation
When music artfully depicts, or even mimics, the text, the result is called:
word painting
What are the qualities that charaterize Baroque art?
???????????
The idea that different musical moods could and should be used to influence the emotions of the listener is known as:
doctrine of affections
What was the single most important genre of music to emerge in the Baroque era?
opera
What is the name given to the new kind of solo singing that emerged during the early Baroque era?
monody
The most common basso continuo group was the:
harpsichord and low string instrument, such as viola da gamba
Which term describes the sharp, abrupt dynamic contrasts found in the music of the Baroque era?
terraced dynaics
What is the numerical shorthand in music that tells the player which unwritten notes to fill in above the written bass note?
figured bass
The dramatic text that composers set to music in an opera, oratorio, or cantata is called:
liberetto
. Musically heightened speech that relates the action or dramatic narrative to the audience is called:
recititave
What type of vocal style is characterized by clear meter, regular rhythms, and long vocal melismas (one vowel spread out over many notes)?
aria
Orfeo is important in Western music because:
frist true opera
Destitute and desperate to provide for her four children, -------\ earned money by dedicating cantatas to prominent members of the nobility, who paid a fee for the honor.
Barbara strozzi
Which term is synonymous with "Ground bass"?
bass ostinato
In the opera Dido and Aeneas, who dies of a broken heart?
dido
The manner of composing for instruments that exploits the strengths, special abilities, and color of a particular instrument or voice while avoiding its weaknesses is known as:
idiomatic writing
Which instrument dominated the sound of the Baroque orchestra and generally led to the rising popularity of instrumental music?
violin
[true/false] The Baroque orchestra normally included the entire woodwind family of instruments: flutes, oboes, clarinets, and bassoons.
false - clarinet was introduced in the classical era
Who was the autocratic musician who was in charge of music at the court of Louis XIV of France?
Jean Baptiste Lully
Which genre of composition consists of two sections; the first is set in a slow duple meter with stately dotted rhythms, while the second is in a fast triple meter in an imitative style?
french overature
During the Baroque period, a multi-movement work for solo instrument, or instrument with keyboard accompaniment was called a:
solo sonata
What is the term for a Baroque sonata that requires three instrumentalists?
trio sonata
What is the term adopted by composers to enumerate and identify their compositions?
opus
A bass line that moves at a moderate pace, mostly in equal note values, and often stepwise up or down the scale is known as:
walking the bass
What form is typically used in the first and third movements of a concerto grosso?
ritornello
Which musician was engaged to teach music for a girl's orphanage, the Hospice of Mercy, and wrote many solo concertos for the all-female orchestra?
antonio vivaldi
How did the style of late Baroque music change from those that characterized the early part of the period?
late= instrumental as important as vocal for first time / early = homophonic
----- learned to compose music by studying the works of Corelli, Vivaldi, Pachelbel, and Palestrina. He also learned to play the organ, in part by emulating others, and soon became the most renowned organ virtuoso in Germany.
Bach
The theme in a fugue is called the:
subject
A note, usually in the bass, that is sustained (or repeated) for a period of time while harmonies change around it is called:
pedal point
Which composer spent the greatest part of his career as the Cantor of the St. Thomas Church in Leipzig, working there between 1723 and 1750?
bach
Identify the trait that best describes the church cantata.
Solo singer and small accompanying orchestra - sacred - multimovement
. A spiritual melody or religious folksong of the Lutheran Church is known as:
chorale
The Well-Tempered Clavier consists of two sets of twenty-four:
preludes and fugues
Which composer was born and trained in Germany, established his reputation in Italy, and made his career in England?
handel
Which composer provided music for English royal entertainments and ceremonies as well as operas and oratorios for public performances?
handel
What is the typical form of movements in the dance suite?
binary
. Water Music is an example of the:
dance suit
This genre, intended for entertainment as well as spiritual edification, had a libretto based on stories from the Bible.
oratorio
Why did Handel find the oratorio a financially viable alternative to composing operas?
Do away with castrati and pre modanas - no sets/costumes - faihfulness of puritans(untapped)
Which composition is an example of a da capo aria?
"rejoice greatly, Oh daughter of Zion"
Handel conducted the premiere performance of his oratorio Messiah in
dublin
Where is Handel buried?
west minister abbey
The years between 1750 - 1820 is known as the
classical period
Who were important Enlightenment philosophers?
Voltaire and Rousseau
What differed in opera buffa from opera seria?
Championed middle-class values and made use of every day characters
What innovation made the piano such a popular instrument?
Pianoforte - more than one dynamic level
What is the typical texture of Classic music?
Lessening of counter point ...melodic qualities? Makes for a lighter melody - pleasent harmony
Phrases that are dependent upon each other to produce a complete musical idea are called - -- - and-------
antecedent-consequent
What term describes the technique of playing the notes of a chord in succession rather than simultaneously, providing a continuous stream of sound?
alberti bass
. What about 18th century Vienna attracted musicians?
so much musical patronage
As a child this composer's pleasing voice brought him to the attention of local church officials; he was sent to Vienna where he was a choirboy at the cathedral of St. Stephen for 10 years until his voice broke.
haydn
One of the most influential creators of the mature Classical style, he composed 104 symphonies and was the first to use theme and variations form for a movement in that genre. Because of his innovations, he is known as the "father of the string quartet."
haydn
On his first visit to Vienna at the age of six, this composer and his sister played for the empress of the Hapsburg Empire, Maria Theresa. A three-year tour of northern Europe followed during which time he visited many important cities. The time in London was especially profitable for his music growth, and his first two symphonies performed there when he was eight.
mozart
t/f Mozart found the system of aristocratic patronage irritating, and after several unpleasant scenes with his patron, the archbishop of Salzburg, he cut himself free and moved to Vienna, determined to make a living as a freelance musician.
true
t/f The peak years of mozarts success were between 1785 and 1787 when he composed many of his greatest works, had numerous pupils, and played several concerts a week.
true
Which form was the only one that actually came into being in the Classical period?
sonata-allegro
The minuet was most commonly in what form?
terenary
A Little Night Music is an example of what genre?
serenade
A sonata is typically a three-movement composition performed by:
a solo piano or a group of instruments with piano accompaniment
"Sonata-allegro form" is:
form of the first movement - between mulitmovment genre sonata and single-mvement genre allegro - most complex and satisfying of music forms - originated during classical period -
The section in sonata-allegro form that presents the main thematic material of the movement is the:
exposition
[true/false] In sonata-allegro form, the second theme is typically in a contrasting mood with the first.
true
Which section of sonata-allegro form frequently consists of unstable harmonies, plentiful use of melodic and harmonic sequence, and fugato?
development
Which theme is generally rewritten in the recapitulation to prevent modulation to the dominant tonal area?
first theme
Which form is often based on folk songs, popular tunes, or patriotic melodies?
themes and variations
Which musical element is most often altered in theme and variation form?
melody
Who was the first composer to include a theme and variations form as a movement in a symphony?
haydn
This composition was first performed in London in 1792, and the audience so enjoyed the theme and variations movement that they cheered, demanding that the orchestra play it again as an encore.
The Surprise,
Which composition is famous for its sudden, unexpected fortissimo chord?
surprise
[true/false] Rondo form is one of the oldest musical forms and can be traced back to the Middle Ages.
true
What form consists of a refrain alternating with contrasting material?
rondo
Which movement of a symphony is normally characterized by a fast tempo, use of sonata-allegro form, and has a serious and substantive mood?
first
The third movement of a Classic period symphony is nearly always:
minuet and trio
The dramatic increase in public concerts increased the popularity of this musical genre.
symphony
Of the three major composers of the Classical period, who composed 104 symphonies?
haydn
. Which instrument was added to the orchestra during the Classical period?
clarinet
Which genre is primarily intended for a small audience or just for the performers themselves?
string quartet
The number and form of the movements in a Classical string quartet are identical to those of the Classical:
classical symphony
A scherzo typically appeared in the---- movement of a symphony or string quartet.
third
What is the literal meaning of the Italian word "scherzo"?
joke
Which instrument is most closely associated with the genre of the sonata?
piano
Which genre uses double exposition form?
concerto
Which section of the concerto's first movement is given over to a fantasy-like improvisation?
cadenza
How does the soloist signal the end of the cadenza?
with a trill
Which vocal genres were important during the Classical period?
Opera = secular, ordinary = sacred
What is the term for German comic opera?
singspeil
In Don Giovanni, the character of Leporello is who/what?
don's servant
Which adjective best describes the diminished chord?
painful
What type of chord accompanies the death of the Commandant?
diminished chord
In what way is Don Giovanni critical of the aristocracy?
Because he seduces and murders his way across Europe - mocks public law