What was the first Western music to be preserved in written notation rather than passed down by oral tradition?
By turning to the various soloists and sections during a performance, what does the conductor convey, not only to the orchestra, but also to the audience?
essential lines and themes of the music
A---- is a type of music for orchestra that is divided into several pieces that each possesses its own tempo and mood.
A short, distinctive musical figure that can stand by itself, and often unifies entire compositions is a:
What term describes performers plucking the strings of their instruments instead of using a bow to generate sound?
. Identify the term that is synonymous with "tone poem."
symphonic poem -tries to capture in music the emotions of a play
. The term, referring to the organization of time in music, gives shape to the pitches of the melody
What is the term for the even pulse that divides the passing of musical time into equal segments
What is the name for the central pitch around which melodies gravitate and on which they generally end?
The arrangement of pitches within the octave that ascends and descends according to a fixed pattern is known as:
Which scale adds five more notes to the typical Western scale, adding color and richness to a melody?
. A---- is a dependent idea within a melody, much like a dependent clause within a grammatical sentence.
The element that adds depth and dimension to music as well as providing support and accompaniment to the melody is
A---- is the basic chord in music; it consists of three pitches arranged in a specific manner.
Which chord tends to move to the tonic at the end of musical phrases, helping create the strong effect of a cadence?
A broken triad, one in which the notes are played in direct succession rather than simultaneously, is known as:
[true/false] Musicians traditionally use Italian words for musical dynamics because the terms were first used by composers working in Italy
Be able to identify the correct order of voice ranges, from highest to lowest.
Which voice category has a range that falls between the high and low male voice categories?
What is the name of the musical element that refers to the density and disposition of musical lines within a composition?
What is the texture in which all the voices, or lines, move to new pitches at roughly the same time?
-----provides a foil to familiar musical material, providing variety, novelty, excitement, and even musical conflict.
Musicians use the diagram A A 1 A 2 A 3 etc. to indicate the structure of which musical form?
theme and variation
Which musical form, illustrated by the pattern ABACA, consists of a musical refrain that alternates with contrasting music?
---- is the distinctive sound produced by the interaction of the elements of music, creating a special manner of presentation.
The concerto grosso and fugue are two of the principal instrumental genres of the---- period.
[true/false] Scholars have identified the composer of the chant All the Ends of the Earth ( Viderunt omnes ) as Pope Gregory the Great (540?-604)
false - no one knows who wrote it
Which church administrator decreed that certain chants should be sung on certain days of the liturgical year?
pope gregory the great
Given to the church as a tithe while still a child, this composer of Gregorian chant later founded a convent and gave advice to popes as well as kings.
Hildegard of Bingen
The most important composer of the fourteenth century, this individual was also a gifted poet whose works are considered equivalent to those of his English counterpart, Geoffrey Chaucer.
The Ordinary of the Mass describes:
chants with unvarying texts that were sung virtually everyday -set by machaut first
The belief that people are something more than a mere conduit for gifts descending from heaven, that they have the capacity to create many things good and beautiful, indeed, the ability to shape their own world. Can be creative sole purpose isn't just to worship gods
Although this composer was born in northern Europe, he spent most of his early career in Italy, where he excelled in writing motets.
The Council of Trent, influenced by the music of -----decided to retain polyphony in the Mass.
When adult male singers use their head voice to produce a high, soprano-like sound, the result is called:
. A ------- is a distinctive motive that is sung or played in turn by each voice or instrumental line.
point of imitation
The idea that different musical moods could and should be used to influence the emotions of the listener is known as:
doctrine of affections
What is the name given to the new kind of solo singing that emerged during the early Baroque era?
The most common basso continuo group was the:
harpsichord and low string instrument, such as viola da gamba
Which term describes the sharp, abrupt dynamic contrasts found in the music of the Baroque era?
What is the numerical shorthand in music that tells the player which unwritten notes to fill in above the written bass note?
The dramatic text that composers set to music in an opera, oratorio, or cantata is called:
. Musically heightened speech that relates the action or dramatic narrative to the audience is called:
What type of vocal style is characterized by clear meter, regular rhythms, and long vocal melismas (one vowel spread out over many notes)?
Destitute and desperate to provide for her four children, -------\ earned money by dedicating cantatas to prominent members of the nobility, who paid a fee for the honor.
The manner of composing for instruments that exploits the strengths, special abilities, and color of a particular instrument or voice while avoiding its weaknesses is known as:
Which instrument dominated the sound of the Baroque orchestra and generally led to the rising popularity of instrumental music?
[true/false] The Baroque orchestra normally included the entire woodwind family of instruments: flutes, oboes, clarinets, and bassoons.
false - clarinet was introduced in the classical era
Who was the autocratic musician who was in charge of music at the court of Louis XIV of France?
Jean Baptiste Lully
Which genre of composition consists of two sections; the first is set in a slow duple meter with stately dotted rhythms, while the second is in a fast triple meter in an imitative style?
During the Baroque period, a multi-movement work for solo instrument, or instrument with keyboard accompaniment was called a:
A bass line that moves at a moderate pace, mostly in equal note values, and often stepwise up or down the scale is known as:
walking the bass
Which musician was engaged to teach music for a girl's orphanage, the Hospice of Mercy, and wrote many solo concertos for the all-female orchestra?
How did the style of late Baroque music change from those that characterized the early part of the period?
late= instrumental as important as vocal for first time / early = homophonic
----- learned to compose music by studying the works of Corelli, Vivaldi, Pachelbel, and Palestrina. He also learned to play the organ, in part by emulating others, and soon became the most renowned organ virtuoso in Germany.
A note, usually in the bass, that is sustained (or repeated) for a period of time while harmonies change around it is called:
Which composer spent the greatest part of his career as the Cantor of the St. Thomas Church in Leipzig, working there between 1723 and 1750?
Identify the trait that best describes the church cantata.
Solo singer and small accompanying orchestra - sacred - multimovement
Which composer was born and trained in Germany, established his reputation in Italy, and made his career in England?
Which composer provided music for English royal entertainments and ceremonies as well as operas and oratorios for public performances?
This genre, intended for entertainment as well as spiritual edification, had a libretto based on stories from the Bible.
Why did Handel find the oratorio a financially viable alternative to composing operas?
Do away with castrati and pre modanas - no sets/costumes - faihfulness of puritans(untapped)
What differed in opera buffa from opera seria?
Championed middle-class values and made use of every day characters
What is the typical texture of Classic music?
Lessening of counter point ...melodic qualities? Makes for a lighter melody - pleasent harmony
Phrases that are dependent upon each other to produce a complete musical idea are called - -- - and-------
What term describes the technique of playing the notes of a chord in succession rather than simultaneously, providing a continuous stream of sound?
As a child this composer's pleasing voice brought him to the attention of local church officials; he was sent to Vienna where he was a choirboy at the cathedral of St. Stephen for 10 years until his voice broke.
One of the most influential creators of the mature Classical style, he composed 104 symphonies and was the first to use theme and variations form for a movement in that genre. Because of his innovations, he is known as the "father of the string quartet."
On his first visit to Vienna at the age of six, this composer and his sister played for the empress of the Hapsburg Empire, Maria Theresa. A three-year tour of northern Europe followed during which time he visited many important cities. The time in London was especially profitable for his music growth, and his first two symphonies performed there when he was eight.
t/f Mozart found the system of aristocratic patronage irritating, and after several unpleasant scenes with his patron, the archbishop of Salzburg, he cut himself free and moved to Vienna, determined to make a living as a freelance musician.
t/f The peak years of mozarts success were between 1785 and 1787 when he composed many of his greatest works, had numerous pupils, and played several concerts a week.
A sonata is typically a three-movement composition performed by:
a solo piano or a group of instruments with piano accompaniment
"Sonata-allegro form" is:
form of the first movement - between mulitmovment genre sonata and single-mvement genre allegro - most complex and satisfying of music forms - originated during classical period -
The section in sonata-allegro form that presents the main thematic material of the movement is the:
[true/false] In sonata-allegro form, the second theme is typically in a contrasting mood with the first.
Which section of sonata-allegro form frequently consists of unstable harmonies, plentiful use of melodic and harmonic sequence, and fugato?
Which theme is generally rewritten in the recapitulation to prevent modulation to the dominant tonal area?
Which form is often based on folk songs, popular tunes, or patriotic melodies?
themes and variations
Who was the first composer to include a theme and variations form as a movement in a symphony?
This composition was first performed in London in 1792, and the audience so enjoyed the theme and variations movement that they cheered, demanding that the orchestra play it again as an encore.
[true/false] Rondo form is one of the oldest musical forms and can be traced back to the Middle Ages.
Which movement of a symphony is normally characterized by a fast tempo, use of sonata-allegro form, and has a serious and substantive mood?
Which genre is primarily intended for a small audience or just for the performers themselves?
The number and form of the movements in a Classical string quartet are identical to those of the Classical:
Which section of the concerto's first movement is given over to a fantasy-like improvisation?