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The arrangement of nitrogenous bases in nucleic acids based on hydrogen bonding; in DNA, base pairs are A-T and G-C; in RNA, base pairs are A-U and G-C
The replacement of a single base in DNA by another base, causing a mutation; also called point mutation
A sequence of three nucleotides in mRNA that specifies the insertion of an amino acid into a polypeptide
The physiological state in which a recipient cell can take an incorporate a large piece of donor DNA
The transfer of genetic material from one cell to another involving cell-to-cell contact
A prokaryotic plasmid that carries genes for sex pili and for transfer of the plasmid to another cell
A molecule that binds to a repressor protein, enabling the repessor to bind to an operator
The process by which a portion of one chromosome is exchanged with a portion of another chromosome
cyclic AMP (cAMP)
A molecule derived from ATP, in which the phosphate group has a cyclic structure; acts as a cellular messenger
A plasmid containing genes encoding production of enzymes that trigger the catabolism of certain unusual sugars and hydrocarbons
An enzyme that covalently bonds a carbon atom of one nucleotide with the phosphate of another nucleotide
The transfer of bacterial chromosome fragments from one cell to another by a bacteriophage
A bacterial cell in which the F factor has become integrated into the chromosome; Hfr stands for high frequency of recombination
horizontal gene transfer
Transfer of genes between two organsims in the same generation. See also vertical gene transfer
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
The type of RNA molecule that directs the incorporation of amino acids into proteins
An enzyme that attaches methyl groups (-CH3) to a molecule; methylated cytosine is protected from digestion by restriction enzymes
negative (indirect) selection
The process of identifying mutations by selecting cells that do not grow using replica plating
nucleotide excision repair
The repair of DNA involving removal of defective nucleotides and replacement with functional ones
A method of inoculating a number of solid minimal culture media from an original plate to produce the same pattern of colonies on each plate
A short strand of RNA used to start synthesis of the lagging strand of DNA, and to start the polymerase chain reaction
The process of DNA replication in which each double-stranded DNA molecule contains one original strand and one new strand
Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (pronounced "snurp") - Short RNA transcript plus protein that combines with pre-mRNA to remove introns and join exons together
The process of transferring a piece of cell DNA adjacent to a prophage to another cell
Enzyme that relaxes supercoiling of DNA ahead of replication form; separates DNA circles at the end of DNA replication
The transfer of DNA from one cell to another by a bacteriophage. See also generalized trasduction; specialed transduction
transfer RNA (tRNA)
The type of RNA molecule that brings amino acids to the ribosomal site where they are incorporated into proteins
(1) The process in which genes are transferred from one bacterium to another as "naked" DNA in solution. (2) The changing of a normal cell into a cancerous cell
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