16 terms

DP Biology Vocabulary - 11.3 The kidney and osmoregulation

Essential vocabulary for the IBO DP Biology course
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Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
a hormone released by the pituitary gland that controls the permeability of the walls of the collecting duct in the kidney, preventing the production of dilute urine.
Bowman's capsule
a double-walled membrane around the glomerulus of each nephron of the vertebrate kidney, its main role is to filter to remove organic wastes, excess inorganic salts, and water.
Collecting duct
a non-secretory tubule that receives urine from several nephrons and discharges it into the pelvis of the kidney.
Dehydration
the excessive loss of water from the body, or from an organ or body part, as a result of illness or fluid deprivation.
Distal convoluted tubule
the convoluted portion of the nephron that lies between the loop of Henle and the non-secretory part of the nephron that is concerned especially with the concentration of urine.
Glomerulus
a group of capillaries, situated within a Bowman's capsule in the nephron of the vertebrate kidney, which filter waste products from the blood and so initiate urine formation.
Haemodialysis
a method used after kidney failure for the removal of certain elements from the blood based on the difference in their rates of diffusion through a semi-permeable membrane while being circulated outside the body. The process involves both diffusion and ultrafiltration.
Loop of Henle
the U-shaped section of the nephron of a vertebrate kidney that is situated between the proximal and distal convoluted tubules and plays a role in the regulation of the concentrating of ions in the urine.
Malpighian tubule system
the organ of excretion in insects and many other arthropods consisting of narrow tubules opening into the anterior part of the hindgut.
Medulla
the inner, darker portion of the parenchyma of the kidneys that consists of the renal pyramids.
Nephron
the structural and functional units of the kidney, numbering about a million in the renal parenchyma, each one is capable of forming urine.
Osmoconformers
marine animals which, in contrast to osmoregulators, maintain the osmolarity of their body fluids such that it is always equal to the surrounding seawater.
Osmoregulator
a body mechanism concerned with the maintenance of constant osmotic pressure relationships.
Proximal convoluted tubule
the convoluted portion of the vertebrate nephron that lies between the Bowman's capsule and the loop of Henle and functions especially in the reabsorption of sugar, sodium and chloride ions, and water from the glomerular filtrate.
Ultra sound treatment
the application of ultrafrequency sound waves to tissues in order to promote healing, break down substances, and reduce pain and swelling.
Ultrafiltration
a high pressure filtration through a semi-permeable membrane in which colloidal particles are retained, while the small sized solutes and the solvent are forced to move across the membrane by hydrostatic pressure forces.
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