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Terms in this set (81)
What type of receptors are the hair cells of the ear?
What specific area of a neuron could be considered the integrator?
Which of the following can be mediated by nociceptors?
pain and itch
Which of the following structures contains sensory receptors for hearing?
What mechanism causes hair cell depolarization as stereocilia bend in response to sound waves?
Tip links open ion channels, which causes membrane depolarization.
Which structure(s) contain(s) receptors that detect rotation of the head?
Which of the following structures focuses light for clear vision?
Vision is especially acute in the fovea and surrounding macula. This is due to a high density of cone cells and which other reason?
There are no blood vessels or neurons covering the cones.
Which of the following correctly describes how a photoreceptor responds to light?
The receptor hyperpolarizes, decreasing the amount of neurotransmitter it releases
Which of the following would be an adequate stimulus for a mechanoreceptor?
Which of the following would be an adequate stimulus for a chemoreceptor?
Identify the FALSE statement regarding sensory receptor cells.
Each type of sensory receptor responds only to the stimulus that defines the receptor.
A graded change in membrane potential within a sensory receptor cell is always called a(n)
Opening a Na+ channel is a non-neural sensory receptor cell would cause that cell to
decrease neurotransmitter release
With the exception of olfaction, all sensory pathways first travel to the ____, which acts as a relay and processing station.
A receptor potential is
a graded potential
The two-point discrimination test
provides a measure of receptive field size for touch receptors
how many primary sensory neurons synapse on a single secondary neuron
The larger the receptive field, the
More primary sensory neurons synapse on a secondary sensory neuron.
Perception threshold describes the
Concept that neurons higher in the sensory pathway can dampen the intensity of a stimulus
A decrease in ones perception of a stimulus who intensity has not change due to higher neural inhibition is
The intensity of a stimulus can be determined within the central nervous system by
Population coding or frequency coding
The modality of a stimulus can be determined within the central nervous system by
adequate stimulus for sensory receptor cell
slowly decrease the frequency of action potentials generated to the constant stimulus
are quick to adapt to a particular stimulus intensity
Which of the following are responsible for a receptor adapting to a stimulus
Na + Channel inactivation or K+ Channel opening
Match the stimulus to the type of receptor that typically response to it = oxgyen
Match the stimulus to the type of receptor that typically response to it = pH
Match the stimulus to the type of receptor that typically response to it = Stretch
Match the stimulus to the type of receptor that typically responses to it = pressure
which of the following is not a somatosensory modality
Which of the following statements regarding pathways for somatic projection is correct
primary sensory neurons from the hands project to a specific region of the somatosensory cortex
The tactile receptor whose nerve endings are surrounded by concentric connective tissue layers is the
Sensory receptors that respond when body temperature is below normal are called
Nociceptors are responsible for the perception of
pain and itch
Sharp, localized (fast) pain is rapidly transmitted to the central nervous system along
small, myelinated A-delta fibers
Visceral pain is poorly localized and can be perceived to originate from a region of the body that is different from it's actual location, this is called
Chronic pain is
Chemicals such as histamine, prostaglandins, serotonin, and substance P
only sensitize and activate nociceptors
in addition to temperature, cold receptors respond to
The gate control theory of pain modulation states that pain transmission can be blocked by
mechanical stimulation of A-beta fibers
Beta-endorphin is produced from the same prohormone as
Match the type of receptor with the appropriate description -- the most studied examples of this type of phasic receptors called pacinian corpuscles
Neuronal cells that are short-lived and therefore are frequently replaced are
When Golf is activated, which of the following steps in the olfactory cells contribute to their depolarization?
increases in adenylate cyclase activity and cAMP concentrations
Gustatory cells that respond to sour via release of serotonin are called
type III taste cells.
Gustatory cells that respond to sweet, bitter or umami are called
type II cells.
________ is released from type II cells to stimulate primary gustatory neurons.
a taste receptor cell activated by glutamate and nucleotides.
Signal transduction in the type II taste cells relies on the G protein
There are ________ primary taste (gustation) sensations.
These are probably the oldest sensory receptors as evidenced by their existence in primitive animals that do not have formalized nervous systems.
The loudness or intensity of a sound wave is related to its
The pitch of a sound wave is related to its
The primary purpose of the middle ear bony structures (maleus, incus and stapes) is to
amplify the vibration as it conducts to the cochlea.
The ion channels that transduce the vibration of the cochlea into receptor potentials are located on the
The external auditory canal ends at the
The bones within the middle ear connect the
tympanic membrane to the oval window.
Sound waves are converted into mechanical movements (vibrations) by the
A structure that allows the middle ear to communicate with the nasopharynx is the
The structure that overlies the organ of Corti and is attached to the tips of the hair cells is the
The structure that separates the cochlear duct from the tympanic duct is the
The highest frequency sound is detected by
hair cells located near the oval window end of the basilar membrane.
Louder noises result in action potentials in the sensory neuron that are
Collateral pathways take vestibular receptor signals from the medulla to the
reticular formation and cerebellum.
The hair cell of the cochlea is depolarized when the stereocilia are bent
towards the tallest stereocilia.
The receptors of equilibrium and hearing are the
Which structures monitor rotational acceleration of the head?
cristae of the semicircular canals
Sensations of the forces of gravity and linear acceleration are detected in the
saccule and utricle.
The cilia of the hair cells of the semicircular canals are embedded in the
The vitreous chamber of the eye
helps to stabilize the structure of the eye and the retina.
The central opening in the eye through which the light passes on to the retina is the
The ciliary muscle helps to
control the shape of the lens.
An area of the retina that contains only cones and is the site of sharpest vision is the
Accommodation describes the focusing of light on the retina by changing
the shape of the lens.
A blind spot in the retina occurs where
the optic nerve leaves the eye.
Which of the following cells is NOT localized to the retina?
The photosensitive pigment synthesized from vitamin A is
On a dark night, the rods have a high concentration of
Which of the following cells involved in processing visual information in the retina synapse with the rods?
horizontal, ganglion, and bipolar
Photoreceptors secrete the neurotransmitter
What is choke and what causes it?
What is step 3 of an action potential?
how much of our body weight is bacteria?
what happens to resting potential when ECF K+ levels are above normal (hyperkalemia)?
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