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Pedro recognized that his son was closer to him than his daughter because his son partially obstructed his view of his daughter. Pedro's perception was most clearly influenced by a distance cue known as:
Gary was born with cataracts in both eyes. At six months, the cataracts were surgically removed. What will happen to his vision?
his vision will be unaffected by this sensory deprivation
All of the following are true regarding deafness EXCEPT:
the deaf culture advocates support cochlear implants
Both _______________ and _______________ indicate how our experiences help us to construct perception.
perceptual set, context
The way in which you quickly group the individual letters in this test item into separate words best illustrates the principle of:
Jane had leukemia as a child and had to undergo numerous bouts of chemotherapy. The chemotherapy always made her nauseous. As she underwent a year of treatment, the waiting room started to make her nauseous. The chemotherapy is the:
The predictability of an association between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) facilitates an organism's ability to expect or anticipate the occurrence of the US. This fact is most likely to be highlighted by a _____________ perspective.
Findings from Garcia's research on taste aversion in rats indicate that:
rats are more likely to develop aversions to taste than they are to sights or sounds.
All of the following are Pavlov's major contributions to the field of psychology EXCEPT:
his methods demonstrated the importance of subjective judgments
One of Pavlov's major contributions to the field of psychology was to show how:
the discipline of psychology could be based on objective laboratory methods
Marlee was raped at gunpoint in a parking garage. Her attacker was wearing strong cologne, and she refuses to go through the male fragrance department at the department store, will not be alone by herself or with any man, and will not park in any garages. This reaction best illustrates:
Nannette's daughter refused to brush her teeth and threw her toys across the room. Nannette gave her daughter a 20-minute time-out. This is an example of:
Children who are promised a payoff for playing with an interesting toy have later been observed to play with the toy less than those who are not promised the reward. These findings provide support for the role of _________________ in operant behavior.
Correlational evidence suggests that there is a link between viewing television violence and exhibiting violent behavior. However, it is possible that the television viewing is not causing the violence. Which of the following alternative hypotheses might explain the correlations?
Neglectful parenting could be the cause of increased aggression and increased television watching.
Johnny is "hammering" the nail in with his toy hammer as his father is hammering the deck boards. His behavior is a clear example of:
An organized whole. Psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
The organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground)
Because they are uniform and linked, we perceive each set of two dots and the line between them as a single unit
The ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance
A binocular cue for perceiving depth: By comparing images from the retinas in the two eyes, the brain computes distance-the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object
Depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone
The famous arch is an example of the unexplained ________ - our perceiving vertical dimensions as longer than identical horizontal dimensions
horizontal- vertical illusion
We perceive the form of familiar objects, such as a door, as constant even while our retina image of it changes
We perceive objects as having a constant size, even while our distance from them varies
Given an object's perceived distance and the size of its image on our retinas, we instantly and unconsciously infer the object's size
Also called brightness constancy - we perceive an object as having a constant lightness even while its illumination varies
Perceived lightness depends on ____ - the amount of light an object reflects relative to its surroundings
Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object
In vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field
The controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input; includes telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition
extrasensory perception (ESP)
Mind-to-mind communication; one person sending thoughts to another or perceiving another's thoughts
On perceiving future events, such as political leader's death or a sporting event's outcome
Learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)
A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning
neutral stimulus (NS)
In classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, such as salivation when food is in the mouth
unconditioned response (UR)
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically-triggers a response
unconditioned stimulus (US)
In classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS)
conditioned response (CR)
In classical conditioning, a previously neutral stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response
conditioned stimulus (CS)
In classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response
A procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. For example, an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone. Also called second order conditioning
The diminishing of a conditional response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS)
The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
Learning that certain events (a response and its consequences in operant conditioning) occur together
A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely
law of effects
You reward responses that are even closer to the final desired behavior, and you ignore all other responses
In operant conditioning research, a chamber (also known as a Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking
An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response
Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli. Anegative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. It's not a punishment
A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as secondary reinforcer
Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
partial (intermittent) reinforcement
In operant conditoning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
Withdraw a desirable stimulus. Time-out for privileges (such as time with friends); revoked driver's license
In operant conditioning, ___ occurs when an organism learns that certain responses, but not others, will be reinforced
In operant conditioning, ____ occurs when an organism's response to similar stimuli is also reinforced
A mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats acts as if they have learned a cognitive map of it
Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy
Mirror neurons help give rise to children's empathy and to their ability to infer another's mental state, an ability called
theory of mind
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