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60 terms

OGT 2

STUDY
PLAY
Flashback
the technique of stopping the chronological action in a story and shifting to an earlier period to introduce additional information
Flat Character
a character with only one outstanding trait or feature
Fluency
the act of reading easily, smoothly and automatically with a rate appropriate for the text, indicating that students understand meaning.
Focus
the center of interest or attention; in writing, the central idea.
Foreshadowing
the technique of giving clues to coming events in a narrative.
Format
the shape, size and general makeup (as of something printed)
Functional Documents
works of nonfiction such as "how to" books, technical manuals and instructions.
Genre
an established class or category of artistic composition or literature (e.g) poetry, drama or novel).
Gerund
a verb form that ends in -ing and is used as a noun (eg, reading is fun.)
Glittering Generalities
propagnada technique in which words have different positive meanings for indiviual subjects but are linked to highly valued concepts
Graphic Organizer
a method of organization of information which incorporates diagrams or other pictoral devices
High-Frequency Word
a word that appears many more times than most other words in spoken or written language
Homograph
a word with the same spelling as another word, whether or not pronounced alike, as pen (a writing instrument) vs. pen (an enclosure) or bow (and arrow) vs. bow (of a ship)
Homonym
a word with different origin and meaning but the same oral or written form as one or more other words, as bear (an animal) vs. bear (to support) vs bare (exposed). These include homophones and homographs
Homophone
a word with different origin and meaning but the same pronunciation as another word, whether or not spelled alike (e.g. hair and hare)
Hyperbole
a figure of speech which uses a dileberate exaggeration (e.g I have told you a million times.)
Hypothesize
to make an assertion abotu something assumed but not positively known.
Idiom
a combination of words that is not strictly in accordance with grammatical rules and often possesses a meaning other than its grammatical or logical one (e.g. an easy test might be described as a piece of cake)
i.e
id est (Latin) meaning "that is"
Imagery
words and phrases that create vivid sensory experiences for a reader.
Implicit
to be assumed but not directly expressed
Inference
a general conclusion drawn from information that is given
Inferential Question
a question that asks a responder to draw a conclusion
Infinitive
a verb that is usually introduced by to. The infinitive may be used as a noun or modifier
Inflection
the process or result of changing the form of a word to express a syntactic function without changing the word's grammatical class, as run to ran or runs.
Informational Documents
works of nonficition such as trasnscripts, reports or journals.
Interrogative Sentence
a sentence that asks a question or makes an inquiry
Intonation
the rise and fall of a voice pitch
Irony
the recognition of the difference between reality and apperance; includes situational irony in which there is a constrast between what is intended or expected and what actually occurs; verbal irony in which there is a contrast between what is said and what is actually meant; and dramatic irony in which words or actions are understood by the audience but not by characters.
Irregular
an exception to linguistic pattern or rule, as good, better, best are exceptions to the usual -er, -est pattern of comparatives and superlatives in English.
Language
the systematic use of sounds, signs and symbols as a method of communication; in writing, the choice of words used to convey meaning.
Pace
the rate at which something moves; the rate at which a writer moves the action or information; the rate a speaker uses in delivery
Parody
a literacy or muscial work in which the style of an author or work is closely imitated for comic effect or in ridicule
Parallel Structure
the phrasing of language so as to balance (grammatically) ideas of equal importance. Note: Parallelism may apply to phases, sentences, paragraphs, longer passages or whole selections.
Persona
a voice or character representing a speaker or narrator of a literary work.
Personification
a figure of speech in which human qualities are attributed to animals, inanimate objects or ideas (e.g. happy house)
Persuasive
one of the four traditional forms of composition in speech and writing that moves the reader by argument or entreaty to a belief or postition
Persuasive technique
a method used in a speaking or writing to get an audience to agree with the speaker or writer's point of view.
Phoneme
a minimal sound unit of speech that, when contrasted with another phoneme, affects the naming of words in a language, as/b/in book contrasts with/t/in took,/ in cook and /h/in book
Phonemic awarneness
the awarness of the sounds (phonemes) that make up spoken words. Such awareness does not appear when young childern learn to talk; the ability is not necessary for speaking and understanding spoken language. Phonemic awareness is a necessary step for learning to read. In alphabetic languages, letters and letter clusters represent phonemes, and in order to learn the correspondences between letters and sounds, one must understand that words are made up of phonemes.
Phonics
a way of teaching reading and spelling that stresses symbol-sound relationships; used especially in beginning instruction.
Pitch
the difference in the relative vibration frequency of the human voice that contributes to the total meaning of speech.
Plagiarism
to steal and pass off the ideas or words of another as one's own; to use another's production without crediting the source.
Plot
the careful sequencing of events in a story generally built around a conflict. Stages of plot include exposition (background), rising action, climax, falling action and denouement (resolution)
Point of view
the perspective or attitude of a narrator of a piece of literature
Limited Point of View
the vantage point in which a narrator tells the story in the third person but often confines himself or herself to what is experienced, thought and felt by a single or limited number of characters.
Literal Meaning
the actual meaning of a word or a phase
Literary Element
a component of a piece of literature such as plot as or setting in a story.
Main Idea
the gist of a passage; the central thought; the chief topic of a passage expressed or implied in a word or phrase; the topic sentence of a paragraph; a statement in sentence from which gives the stated or implied major topic of a passage and the specific way in which the passage is limited in content or reference.
Media
a means of communication, especially of mass communication, such as books, newspapers, magazines, radio, television, motion pictures and recordings.
Metaphor
a figure of speech in which an implied comparison is made between two unlike things. (e.g he's a tiger)
Monologue
an extended speech in a drama or a narrative that is presented by one character
Mood
the feeling or atmosphere that a writer creates for a reader; a reflection of an author's attitude toward a subject or theme.
Narrative
one of the four traditional forms of composition in speech and writing that tells a story or gives an account of something, dealing with sequences of events and experiences, though not neccessarily in strict order.
Nuance(s)
a delicate shade of difference
Omniscient Point of View
the vantage point in which a narrator is removed from the story and knows everything that needs to be known
Onomatopeia
words whose sound intiates their suggested meaning (e.g. buzz, hiss, and clang)
Onset
the consonants preceding the vowel of a syllable, (e.g. str in strip)
Open-Ended Question
a type of question intended to produce a fre response rather than a direct or one-word response
Overlay
a transparent sheet containing additional details, such as a chart or map, that is placed on top of another transparnecy on an overhead projoector during a presentation.