the technique of stopping the chronological action in a story and shifting to an earlier period to introduce additional information
a character with only one outstanding trait or feature
the act of reading easily, smoothly and automatically with a rate appropriate for the text, indicating that students understand meaning.
the center of interest or attention; in writing, the central idea.
the technique of giving clues to coming events in a narrative.
the shape, size and general makeup (as of something printed)
works of nonfiction such as "how to" books, technical manuals and instructions.
an established class or category of artistic composition or literature (e.g) poetry, drama or novel).
a verb form that ends in -ing and is used as a noun (eg, reading is fun.)
propagnada technique in which words have different positive meanings for indiviual subjects but are linked to highly valued concepts
a method of organization of information which incorporates diagrams or other pictoral devices
a word that appears many more times than most other words in spoken or written language
a word with the same spelling as another word, whether or not pronounced alike, as pen (a writing instrument) vs. pen (an enclosure) or bow (and arrow) vs. bow (of a ship)
a word with different origin and meaning but the same oral or written form as one or more other words, as bear (an animal) vs. bear (to support) vs bare (exposed). These include homophones and homographs
a word with different origin and meaning but the same pronunciation as another word, whether or not spelled alike (e.g. hair and hare)
a figure of speech which uses a dileberate exaggeration (e.g I have told you a million times.)
to make an assertion abotu something assumed but not positively known.
a combination of words that is not strictly in accordance with grammatical rules and often possesses a meaning other than its grammatical or logical one (e.g. an easy test might be described as a piece of cake)
id est (Latin) meaning "that is"
words and phrases that create vivid sensory experiences for a reader.
to be assumed but not directly expressed
a general conclusion drawn from information that is given
a question that asks a responder to draw a conclusion
a verb that is usually introduced by to. The infinitive may be used as a noun or modifier
the process or result of changing the form of a word to express a syntactic function without changing the word's grammatical class, as run to ran or runs.
works of nonficition such as trasnscripts, reports or journals.
a sentence that asks a question or makes an inquiry
the rise and fall of a voice pitch
the recognition of the difference between reality and apperance; includes situational irony in which there is a constrast between what is intended or expected and what actually occurs; verbal irony in which there is a contrast between what is said and what is actually meant; and dramatic irony in which words or actions are understood by the audience but not by characters.
an exception to linguistic pattern or rule, as good, better, best are exceptions to the usual -er, -est pattern of comparatives and superlatives in English.
the systematic use of sounds, signs and symbols as a method of communication; in writing, the choice of words used to convey meaning.
the rate at which something moves; the rate at which a writer moves the action or information; the rate a speaker uses in delivery
a literacy or muscial work in which the style of an author or work is closely imitated for comic effect or in ridicule
the phrasing of language so as to balance (grammatically) ideas of equal importance. Note: Parallelism may apply to phases, sentences, paragraphs, longer passages or whole selections.
a voice or character representing a speaker or narrator of a literary work.
a figure of speech in which human qualities are attributed to animals, inanimate objects or ideas (e.g. happy house)
one of the four traditional forms of composition in speech and writing that moves the reader by argument or entreaty to a belief or postition
a method used in a speaking or writing to get an audience to agree with the speaker or writer's point of view.
a minimal sound unit of speech that, when contrasted with another phoneme, affects the naming of words in a language, as/b/in book contrasts with/t/in took,/ in cook and /h/in book
the awarness of the sounds (phonemes) that make up spoken words. Such awareness does not appear when young childern learn to talk; the ability is not necessary for speaking and understanding spoken language. Phonemic awareness is a necessary step for learning to read. In alphabetic languages, letters and letter clusters represent phonemes, and in order to learn the correspondences between letters and sounds, one must understand that words are made up of phonemes.
a way of teaching reading and spelling that stresses symbol-sound relationships; used especially in beginning instruction.
the difference in the relative vibration frequency of the human voice that contributes to the total meaning of speech.
to steal and pass off the ideas or words of another as one's own; to use another's production without crediting the source.
the careful sequencing of events in a story generally built around a conflict. Stages of plot include exposition (background), rising action, climax, falling action and denouement (resolution)
Point of view
the perspective or attitude of a narrator of a piece of literature
Limited Point of View
the vantage point in which a narrator tells the story in the third person but often confines himself or herself to what is experienced, thought and felt by a single or limited number of characters.
the actual meaning of a word or a phase
a component of a piece of literature such as plot as or setting in a story.
the gist of a passage; the central thought; the chief topic of a passage expressed or implied in a word or phrase; the topic sentence of a paragraph; a statement in sentence from which gives the stated or implied major topic of a passage and the specific way in which the passage is limited in content or reference.
a means of communication, especially of mass communication, such as books, newspapers, magazines, radio, television, motion pictures and recordings.
a figure of speech in which an implied comparison is made between two unlike things. (e.g he's a tiger)
an extended speech in a drama or a narrative that is presented by one character
the feeling or atmosphere that a writer creates for a reader; a reflection of an author's attitude toward a subject or theme.
one of the four traditional forms of composition in speech and writing that tells a story or gives an account of something, dealing with sequences of events and experiences, though not neccessarily in strict order.
a delicate shade of difference
Omniscient Point of View
the vantage point in which a narrator is removed from the story and knows everything that needs to be known
words whose sound intiates their suggested meaning (e.g. buzz, hiss, and clang)
the consonants preceding the vowel of a syllable, (e.g. str in strip)
a type of question intended to produce a fre response rather than a direct or one-word response
a transparent sheet containing additional details, such as a chart or map, that is placed on top of another transparnecy on an overhead projoector during a presentation.