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are phagocytic cells

Which cells are required to process and present antigens from foreign material as the initial step in the immune response?


Humoral immunity is mediated by

B-lymphocyes (B cells)

A patient experienced an episode of influenza 6 months ago. A recent exposure to a mutated form of the same virus would result in

a primary immune response

Which type of immunity is provided by a vaccination?

active artificial

When an allergen binds with IgE antibodies on mast cells, resulting in release of chemical mediators, this reaction is called:

type I hypersensitivity

The role of memory cells is to

recognize the antigen and stimulate the immune response

Which statement applies to contact dermatitis?

A type IV reaction occurs in specific areas

Which of the following causes anaphylaxis?

a severe, systemic allergic reaction

Why is anaphylaxis considered a critical situation?

bronchoconstriction and systemic vasodilation develop rapidly

Incompatible blood transfusions result in

hemolysis and erythrocytes

An autoimmune disease is

failure of the immune system to distinguish self from nonself

Systemic lupus erythematosus is caused by

immune complex deposits of antinuclear antibodies

Distinguishing clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus include

inflammation in multiple organs

Which are target cells for HIV?

helper T-lymphocytes (CD4 lymphocytes)

A diagnosis of HIV positive means that

the virus and its antibodies are in the blood

HIV infection impairs

both humoral and cell-mediated immunity

HIV is transmitted by

blood, semen and vaginal secretions from an infected person

Serious infections frequently occurring in patients with AIDs include


Which statement does NOT apply to MHC proteins or molecules?

all members of a family have identical MHCs

CD-4 positive helper T-cells function by

facilitating all immune system activity

Host-versus-graft disease refers to

transplant rejection by the recipients immune system

Which of the following complications does NOT occur frequently in AIDS patients?


Which of the following characteristics apply to the agent HIV?

It tends to mutate frequently to form new strains
It is inactivated by heat and many disinfectants

In cases of HIV infection the "window period" refers to the time between

entry of the virus into the body and the appearance of antibodies in the blood

Which of the following is an effect of cytokines?

They activate and stimulate proliferation of B and T lymphocytes

What does seroconversion mean in relation to HIV and AIDS?

Antibodies for HIV have been indentified in the blood

Which of the following statements is true regarding a patient who is HIV positive?

Antibodies in the blood indicate presence of virus and possible transmission to others

The term tolerance refers to

the ability of the immune system to ignore "self" cells

Which of the following statements apply to the complement system?

It consists of proteins in the blood that must be activated

Which of the following statements regarding immunoglobins is TRUE?

They consist of a unique sequence of amino acids

Which of the following is NOT a cause of immunodeficiency?

Delayed hypersensitivity

Which statement is TRUE regarding infants born to HIV infected mothers?

Infants test positive for HIV due to presence of maternal antibodies

The most common cause of death in AIDS patients is

Pneumocytis carinii pneumonia

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