APHG rubenstein chapter 9
Terms in this set (70)
Process of improving the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology
A country that has progressed relatively far along the continuum of development
A country that is in the early stage process of economic development
What 4 factors does the UN consider when determining a country's level of development(HDI)
GDP per capita, life expectancy, literacy rate, and amount of education
The value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country, normally during a year
Annual per capita GDP in and MDC & LDC?
What has been happening to the gap between MDCs and LDCs in terms of GDP?
Explain "Per capita GDP measures average wealth, not its distribution"
Only a few people receive most of GDP, then the standard of living is lower than the average person.
Why types of jobs comprise the primary sector or an economy? Secondary? Tertiary?
How is the percent of workers in agriculture different in LDCs and MDCs
The percentage is greater in LDCs
Within MDCs what is the trend for each sector?
Value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it
Gross value of the product less the cost of raw materials and energy
What 3 "consumer goods" are considered to be particularly good indicators of development?
Cars, telephones, and computers
What is the ratio of people to these goods in a MDC? LDC?
MDC- cars=400:100 telephone=800:1000
The people on LDCs who do have access to goods are usually concentrated in what regions?
Percent of a country's people who can read and write
What is the literacy rate in MDCS? LDCS?
LDC- less than 60%
Life expectancy in demographics
IMR in demographics
NIR in demographics
CBR in demographics
Top in GDP per capita and literacy rates but lower in life expectancy and education, worlds highest tertiary sector employment, leading goods exporter
European Union makes Europe worlds largest and richest market, some Eastern European countries lag in development making HDI lower that USA, dependent on international trade
In 1990's it was converted to a market community, unemployment increased, standard living decreased, HDI lowered from less than .90 in 80's to .73 in the 21st century
Unfavorable ratio of population to resources making development great, people work hard for low wages, sells high quality and high value products @ low cost, resources are high in education and training
Plays important role in global economy due to mining, don't export food
People are likely to live in urban areas more than people than people on LDC's coastal areas have high GDP, development is low outside coastal areas, economy is close to USA which hurts it
China is the worlds most populous country far from USA, manufacturing high in goods, rapid development, cheap workers, partnership with wal-mart
Southwest Asia & North Africa
Import most products, most of petroleum, large gap in per capita between petroleum rich countries and non-petroleum, women have low literacy rate, resources are the military, not development
Most populous in that region is Indonesia, intense tropical climate makes agriculture difficult, development is limited, rice is the main export, textile manufacturing is high, economic growth has slowed
Countries that were apart of Soviet Union, Iran, & Afghanistan, development increased in Iran & Kaz because of petroleum, development decreased in others, economic resources are minerals and agriculture, Afghan has the worlds lowest HDI's because of war and conflict
2nd highest population, 2nd lowest per cap income, increase population density with increase in NIR, unfavorable ratio of people to resources, agriculture depends on climate, India-worlds 4th largest economy, large service provider
Major source of minerals, regional wealth is greater than or equal to LDC's, least favorable development (high poverty, poor health, low education, high NIR) landlocked states makes shopping difficult, development halted
Gender-related development index
Compares level of development of women with development of both sexes
Gender empowerment measure
Compared ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decisions
The GDI considers what 4 areas as it compares the situation of women to that of men in various countries?
1-per capita female income as a percentage of per capita for men
2-# of females in school compared to men
3- percentage of literate women
Where are the highest GDIs?
North America, West Europe, Australia, and Japan
Where are the lowest GDIs?
What is the average "income gap" between men and women in MDCs
Where is the largest gender disparity in education?
In MDCs literacy is universal among both men and women
In Latin America and Asia, literacy is universal among men, but races are low for women
In sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East, female literacy is low, but it is slightly higher than that of men
In what sense is the "gender gap" actually greater in LDCS than in MDCS
Women live longer than men in MDCS
What does the GEM measure?
Ability of women to participate in the process of improving their status
What are 2 things are measured in order to calculate the GEM?
What types of barriers restrict women from obtaining professional the technical jobs?
In what region do women comprise a larger part of national government than anywhere else in the world?
Why percentage of legislators there are women?
1/3 of 33%
What is that percentage in the USA?
Which of the 2 models for development has shown the most success?
International Trade Model
The WTO was formed by countries that conduct the majority of international trade.
The WTO seeks to increase import quotas and reduce import and export tariffs.
The WTO seeks to eliminate restrictions on the flow of money between countries.
Though it can hear accusations, the WTO cannot order remedies.
WTO-anti demographic because decisions promote interests of large corporations and not the poor
WTO comprises power and sovereignty of countries by changing taxes and laws
Foreign direct investment
Investment made by a foreign company in the economy of another country
Company that invest and operated in countries other than where it's headquarters are located
In what regions are most transnational corporations headquartered?
USA & Europe
The flow of money in transnational corporations is not balanced. How is this true (2 ways)?
1- only 25% of foreign investment went from MDCs to LDCs
2- money is not invested evenly among LDCs
Who is making the primary investments in South America? Asia?
Europe is investing in South America
USA is investing in Asia
What are 2 principal ways in which LDCs obtain money to finance development?
1- bank and international organizations loans
2- investment from transnational companies
Identify the 2 main sources, both cancelled by MDCs, of loans LDCs
World Bank and International Monetary Fund
What is the theory behind using loans for infrastructure projects in LDCS?
New infrastructure is favorable conditions for domestic and foreign businesses
In reality, what has the usually happened when loans have been used for these infrastructure projects?
Projects are failures due to sucking engineering, infrastructure doesn't attract
What are the structural adjustment programs?
LDCS economic goals/strategies for achieving objectives and external financing requirement
What is this unpopular with citizens in LDCs?
Poverty worsens; cuts in devices that help people get jobs and support
Products are made, traded according to standards that protect workers and small businesses in LDCs