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55 terms

Multiple choice chapter 2

The author's experience in Morocco, which included the absence of women from public positions, intense stares
directed at him, pushing and shoving at the train station, and total disregard for sanitation by food vendors, left the
author with a profound sense of ________.
Language, beliefs, values, norms, behavior, material objects, and technology that are passed from one generation to
the next by members of society describe ________.
A) culture
Jewelry, art, hairstyles, and clothing each represent examples of ________.
C) material culture
Anthropologist Ralph Linton said, "The last thing a fish would ever notice would be water." What does this imply
about culture?
A) Culture is taken for granted by members of society who share it.
In 1906, sociologist William Sumner made the comment, "One's own group is the center of everything, and all
others are scaled and rated with reference to it." This statement is most aligned with the concept of ________.
B) ethnocentrism
When Harry returned from a business meeting in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, his wife asked him what he thought
of the Vietnamese people. Harry replied, "They're primitive people who eat animals from the streets, drive wildly
around town on motor scooters, and talk very fast." Harry's reply BEST qualifies as an example of ________.
A) ethnocentrism
While in the Peace Corps, Kristina enjoyed a delicious Cambodian dinner that included several entrees. Later that
evening she was told that one of the entrees was roast dog, the same canine Kristina was playing with the day
before. At this point Kristina became ill and swore she would be a vegetarian as long as she was in Cambodia.
Which statement MOST applies to Kristina's experience?
B) Kristina experienced culture shock.
The refusal of Christians to accept Islam as a valid religion is a form of ________, while the sincere effort to
understand the practice of having multiple wives in some societies is a form of ________.
C) ethnocentrism; cultural relativism
In his book, Sick Societies, anthropologist Robert Edgerton proposed that cultures should be evaluated on their
"quality of life" and not just automatically accepted. This is contrary to which of the following sociological
B) cultural relativism
All of the following statements are accurate in describing gestures, EXCEPT for which one?
D) Social scientists have identified many common gestures and agree that gestures are universal.
Symbols can be strung together in an infinite number of ways for the purpose of communicating abstract thought.
This is referred to as ________.
C) language
All of the following statements are accurate regarding language, EXCEPT for which one?
C) Language is universal in terms of the meaning of particular sounds
Without language, human culture would ________.
C) be little more advanced than lower primates
The idea that language allows us to pass ideas, knowledge, and attitudes to the next generation shows how language
B) provides a social or shared future.
In America, why is Spanish, rather than English, continuously spoken from generation to generation with greater
commitment than any other non-English speaking language?
D) There is a constant influx of new Hispanic immigrants into the U.S.
The two anthropologists who studied the Hopi Indians and concluded that language has embedded within it ways of
looking at the world were ________.
A) Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf
Harry is in the campus dining hall and has chosen a cheeseburger and fries rather than a veggie burger. Harvey, a
fraternity playboy, claims he has only dated the most beautiful women on campus. Horace considers earning an "A"
in a course far superior than a "C" or even a "B." What do Harry, Harvey, and Horace have in common?
C) They are expressing their own values in the choices they make.
Sociologists use the concept of "norms" to describe ________.
D) expectations or rules of behavior that develop from values
Receiving the Medal of Honor and making the Dean's List are both examples of ________.
C) positive sanctions
Anthropologists Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf concluded that ________.
B) language creates ways of thinking and perceiving
The notion that language determines our consciousness is the basic premise of which concept?
A) Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
Clarisse and Cindy are honor students who conduct themselves in a mature manner at the Christian college they
attend in Philadelphia. This year for spring break, they decided to go to Cancun, where they auditioned for the
"Girls Gone Wild" video. Which statement BEST describes the probable reason behind the behavior of Clarisse and
B) Clarisse and Cindy considered themselves on a moral holiday, which permitted them to "let their hair down."
If Alice came to class wearing a soiled and torn blouse, she would be violating a ________. But if Alice came to
class not wearing a blouse (or any other garment), she would be violating a ________.
B) folkway; more
At the Back to Nature Nudist Colony, Ernie and Morello take a walk every morning along the beach, totally nude.
Within the colony, which statement BEST describes the behavior of Ernie and Morello?
A) They are conforming to the folkways of their subculture.
Every December, many Jewish families celebrate Chanukah, the "festival of lights," during which special foods are
served, rituals are practiced, and traditional activities take place that are unique to this faith. In this context,
members of the Jewish faith would represent which concept?
C) subculture
When a group has a distinctive way of looking at life, but at the same time its values and norms reflect the dominant
culture of its society, the group would be considered a(n) ________.
D) subculture
Courtney raises champion sheep, Joe is a cab driver in New York, and Rufus is a member of the RAW family of
professional wrestling. What do Courtney, Joe, and Rufus have in common?
D) They are all members of subcultures.
All of the following statements are examples of countercultures, EXCEPT for which one?
B) Chicago Cubs fans
From a sociological perspective, which statement best classifies 19th century Mormons and 21st century
C) The Mormons would be classified a counterculture and the physicians as a subculture.
People from all walks of life, races, religions, and ethnic groups participate in the U.S. legislative process. In view
of this, which term BEST describes American society?
C) America is a pluralistic society.
Most American high schools routinely schedule ceremonies to recognize the most talented student athletes and
scholars. Such activities illustrate the importance that Americans place on which value, as defined by sociologist
Robin Williams?
B) achievement and success
The sociologist who identified ten underlying core values of American society was ________.
C) Robin Williams
The idea that someone can start from very humble beginnings and one day become president of the United States is an example of which core value?
B) individualism
Good nutrition, medical care, and housing, and a nice car are included in a classification of values in American
society that sociologist Robin Williams would call ________.
C) material comfort
Which of Williams' U.S. values contradicts the other values of freedom, democracy, and equality?
C) group superiority
The author added three values to the original list of ten core values that Robin Williams identified as the most
common in American society. Which of the following is NOT one of the three values added?
C) equality
Americans usually recognize hard work, education, and material comfort as desired qualities. Where one of these
qualities is found, the other two also apply. This is an example of ________.
B) a value cluster
Lamont believes in democracy and equality, and when asked to describe himself he cites his appreciation for people
of all races and ethnic heritages. But at the same time, Lamont believes women should not be in the armed services
and he avoids taking courses from female professors. In view of this, which statement BEST describes Lamont?
D) Lamont is engaged in value contradiction.
Several years ago, the gay community applied for a permit to march in the St. Patrick's Day Parade in Boston.
When denied, the gay community filed suit and won. Rather than permitting the gay community to march in the
parade, the parade trustees cancelled the event. Sociologists would suggest this conflict in values between the
trustees of the parade and the gay community would eventually lead to ________.
B) social change that brings attention to gay rights and eventual acceptance
Sociologists have identified an emerging set of five interrelated values in American society. What are these
emerging values?
B) leisure, self-fulfillment, physical fitness, youthfulness, and environmental concern
Of the five interrelated core values emerging in American society, the one that is reflected in the "human potential"
movement that focuses on "self help, relating, and personal development" is ________.
D) self-fulfillment
An emerging value in the U.S. that emphasizes "becoming all that you can be" is an example of ________.
B) self-fulfillment
An emerging value in the U.S. that emphasizes taking time to go to the spa and weekend getaway vacations is an
example of ________.
A) leisure
Many fundamentalist Christians lobby for laws making same-sex marriage illegal. Gays and lesbians consider samesex
relationships and same-sex marriage as basic human rights. Which concept BEST describes the relationship
between these fundamentalist Christians and the gay/lesbian community?
D) culture war due to conflicting values
Going to college and having a successful career is an example of ________.
A) ideal culture
Americans glorify academic progress and material success. However, most students do not graduate with honors
and most citizens are not wealthy. This condition characterizes the difference between ________ and ________.
B) ideal culture; real culture
The automobile, and the skills needed to drive it, would be an example of ________.
B) technology
The emerging tools and the skills needed to use them, which have a significant impact on social life, are called
D) new technology
Today we can type our symptoms into a computer search engine and often find out why we are sick, what condition
we may have, and how we might treat it. But we still go to see a doctor. This is an example of ________.
A) cultural lag
The term "cultural lag," referring to the varying ________ among elements within cultures, was coined by
sociologist ________.
C) rates of change; William Ogburn
The spread of cultural characteristics from one group to another refers to ________.
B) cultural diffusion
Within a few blocks in midtown Manhattan, you can purchase a bagel with cream cheese, a hot dog, a steak, a
polish sausage, or a pizza, as well as chow mein, lamb curry, sushi, lasagna, falafels, chicken couscous, enchiladas,
and a host of ethnic specialties. This range of culinary possibilities illustrates the process of ________.
C) cultural diffusion
Although computers are supplied by the university, many professors never quite learn how to use them. Others feel
they might break them so they avoid trying anything new. Others save data to their hard drive but also make a paper
copy to keep. Such behavior is an example of ________.
A) cultural lag
In recent years, cultures have become more similar to each other as a result of travel and communication.
Sociologists use the term "________" to describe this process.
D) cultural leveling
McDonald's sells Quarter Pounders in Tokyo, Moscow, Paris, Berlin, and practically every other major city in the
world. Mickey Mouse and Fred Flintstone are among the most popular cartoon figures in Mexico. These are
examples of ________.
A) cultural leveling