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Every day a human must produce about _____ of ATP

40 lbs or more

*What transports hydrogen portons and electrons from the light reactions to the Calvin cycle?


Aerobic respiration takes place

in both plants & animals

The term "cycle" is used to describe the Calvin cycle because:

the process begins and ends with RuBP (a five carbon sugar)

Chloroplast contain disk-like membranous sacs arranged in stacks. The stacks are called


What is the purpose of a cuticle on a leaf?

to prevent water loss

*After 3-PGA (the three carbon acid) is phosphorylated, it is reduced by ____.


The role of water in photosynthesis is to

provide electrons & H+

The pigment(s) that absorb light energy to drive photosynthesis is/are:

chlorophyll and carotenoids

In the light reaction, light energy is transferable among the various pigments bust must eventually be absorbed by molecules of


The characteristic dark tail, ears, face, and paws of a siamese cat result from

variations in pigment production by a heat-senesative enzyme

What provides electrons to replace chlorophyll's missing electrons in the light reactions?


All of the following factors influence the rate of photosynthesis EXCEPT:

atmospheric N2 levels

Why do plant leaves appear green?

The chlorophyll in leaves reflects green light

Where does the O2 released during photosynthesis come from?


*For each molecule of glucose converted to pyruvic acid:

Two molecules of ATO are used and Four are produced

Before photosynthesis evolved, _____ was rare in Earth's atmosphere


What provides the carbon atoms that are incorporated into sugar molecules in the Calvin cycle?

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

In the C3 pathway, where does the carbon come from to form glucose?

atmospheric CO2

Which of the following occurs during the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis

Carbon dioxide is converted to chemicals that can be used to make sugars

The energy of the movement of electrons down a concentration gradient via electron transport within the thylakoid membrane is used to generate:


Which of the following is not a part of ATP?

a sterol ring

The light reactions of photosynthesis use _____ and produce_____.

water... NADPH

ATP is required during which of the following reactions?

the Calvin cycle only

All of the following compounds are necessary constituents for photosynthesis EXCEPT:


What two molecules are produced by the light reactions and used to fix CO2?


All of the following factors influence the rate of photosynthesis EXCEPT

atmospheric N2 levels

Enzymes are (almost all) composed of:


Stomata are pores found in the leaves and stems of plants. heat is their purpose?

Stomata open to allow gas exchange and close to prevent the loss of water

In the metabolism of glucose, almost all organisms first break down or split glucose into pyruvic acid in the set of reactions called:


Carbon fixation can also be called


Which of the following is NOT true of chlorophyll

it is found in mitochondria

Suppose you are studying photosynthesis in a research lab. you grow your plants in a chamber with a source of water that has a radioactively labeled oxygen atom. What photosynthetic product will be radioactive

O2 gas

The products of photosynthesis areL

glucose and oxygen

Most of the enzymes in your body work best at a pH of about


Which of the following compounds is made of six carbon atoms?


The light reactions take place in the ______ and Calvin cycle takes place in the _______.

grana; stroma

the cellular work is accomplished by the energy provided when ATP donates one of its high energy:


What is the role of chlorophyll in plants?

chlorophyll captures solar energy to produce plant energy

Organisms that derive their chemical energy from the process of chemosynthesis (without light ever) may be found:

deep ocean rifts

You have a friend who tells you she is lactose intolerant. She asks you to explain what this means

You cannot digest milk because you do not have enzyme to break down the sugar in the milk

What did Farr say in class could stop electron flow


How many carbon dioxide molecules must be added to RuBP (5 carbon molecule) to make a single molecule of glucose?


In certain organisms and under certain conditions ______ can be used as an energy alternative to glucose

All of the above

During which part of photosynthesis is O2 created?

O2 is a product in the light reactions

How many net ATP molecules are produced by the breakdown of a glucose molecule in the glycolysis pathway:


What structural feature of a leaf enables it to obtain CO2 from the air?


Enzymes work by _______.

reducing the energy of activation

All algae are:


Which type(s) reactions of photosynthesis take place in the grana

the light

The pigment(s) that absorb light energy to drive photosynthesis is/are

chlorophyll and carotenoids

Excess glucose in most complex plants is stored as:


The only part of a green plant that is actually green is the:

Grana of chloroplast

Which of the following is NOT true of chlorophyll?

It is found in mitochondria

What product that is required by plants do animals produce during cellular respiration?


Why do chloroplasts make energy carriers during the light reactions?

to provide energy for the synthesis of sugar

Eelctron transfer chains allow a series of controlled

oxidation-reduction reactions

Light reactions produce:

ATP, NADPH, and O2

Suppose you are studying photosynthesis in a research lab. You grow your plants in a chamber with a source of CO2 that has a radioactively labeled carbon atom. What photosynthetic product will be radioactive?


* An electron-transport chain for photoautotrophs is located in which of the following:


CO2 is "fixed" or reduced in:

the light-independent reactions

The most common energy carrier molecule in living organisms is


All of the following are part of the Calvin Cycle EXCEPT:

generation of ATP

* Which of the following accurately describes energy?

something that has the capacity to bring about change (work)

A respiration reaction which can proceed without oxygen is called:


Chemical agents produced by living things and having the capacity to control the rate and direction of chemical reactions in an organism are known as:


How is O2 involved in photosynthesis?

O2 is a product of the light reactions

Photosynthesis occurs in two major steps-- the Light Reactions and:

All of these can be used

The light reactions of photosynthesis use ______ and produce______

water ... NADPH

The energy of the movement of electrons down a concentration gradient via electron transport within chloroplast and mitochondria is used to generate molecules of


Which of the following statement is true about NADPH?

It is produced in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis

The main function of cyclic photophosphorylation (Photosystem I) in photosynthesis is to:

Produce ATP

When NADP is converted in NADPH during photosynthesis, this is ______ reaction

a reduction

Which of the following endings denotes an enzyme?


Glycolysis starts and ends in the _____


In the following reaction, which of the following is/are an example of an enzyme?

Lactose --Lactase--> Glucose + Galactose


Enzymes involved in a chemical reaction:

are not consumed in the reaction

* Most of the photosynthesis in the world takes place

in the waters of the earth

* What is the source of the chemical energy that most cells on Earth reply on?


During photosynthesis, which step is most responsible for a plants acquisition of new organic material (or carbon)?

the "plucking" of one CO2 molecule from the air by a 5-cabon compound (RuBP)

A "high energy" bond in an ATP molecule is located between

the last two phosphate groups

* The active site of an enzyme:

is a groove or crevice in the structure of the enzyme complementary to the substrate

As a result of its involvement in a reaction, an enzyme

is unchanged

Animals have enzymes that break apart starch molecules but not cellulose, despite the fact that both are made up of glucose subunits. Which enzyme characteristic BEST explains this?

Enzymes are highly specific


Does not require oxygen

The energy necessary to encourage two atoms to react and form a bond is called:

the activation energy

The functional role chlorophyll plays in photosynthesis is related to

The absorption of light

Dark reactions (or LIght Independent Reactions) can be called "dark reactions" because:

They do not depend directly on sunlight as long as ATP and NADPH2 are available

Almost all of the energy-requiring chemical reactions of the cell get their energy directly from:

Adenosine triphosphate

Glycolysis occurs in the cell's


Plant cells produce one molecule of O2

by splitting two molecule of water

Cyclic photophosphorylation is called cyclic because:

an electron leaving a chlorophyll molecule returns to it

* Which of the following is in correct order with respect to decreasing energy levels (potential energy) of the compounds:


Enzymes act as ____ that change the rate of a chemical reaction without being destroyed in the process:


Most enzymes do not work if the temperature is raised too much, why is this?

Enzymes denature or "cook" at higher temperatures

Mitochondrial respiration is:

Lactic acid producing

* The first event of photosynthesis is the:

exciting of an electron from chlorophyll

ATP contains:


Electron-transfer chains involve __________

all of the above

Outside the body, sugar can catch fire and burn in an exergonic reaction. Inside the body, we also talk about burning sugar in an exergonic reaction, BUT it NEVER catches a body on fire. Why not?

When sugar is lit on fire, all of the bonds are broken at once. When the body breaks down sugar, enzymes break down one bond at a time

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