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Psych 109 Unit 1 Test
Terms in this set (63)
social psychology is primarily concerned with the ways in which
individuals think, feel and behave with regards to others
Ringelmann and Triplett are best labeled as
the founders of social psychology
according to your textbook, one of the people who has the gratis impact on the developing field of social psychology was not a psychologist. Who was this person?
The work of Muzafer Sherif was important for the development of social psychology because he
showed that complex social behavior could be examined scientifically
A pluralistic approach to social psychology
encourages research outside of controlled settings
Fernando studies the relationship between emotions and behavior in social settings. Fernando's research epitomizes the ____ perspective in social psychology
Jessica and Nick are behavioral researchers. Jessica believes that her sons have been aggressive from birth because she and her husband Nick have inborn aggressive tendencies. Nick, however, believes that their sons are aggressive because throughout history it has been adaptive for men to be aggressive so that they can protect their territory and possessions. Nick's beliefs reflect the influence of _____, whereas Jessica's beliefs reflect _____.
evolutionary psychology; behavioral genetics
Social psychology is set apart from other ways of interpreting social behavior such as folk wisdom or literature because it is ______________.
an experimental science
William McDougall, Edward Ross, and Floyd Allport each played an important role in the history of social psychology by
writing the first social psychology textbook
Different people see the same situation differently and personality interact with the social context and producing behavior. These fundamental principles of social psychology are best attributed to
Which of the following questions would a social psychologist be most likely to study?
Is there a link between playing violent video games and engaging in aggressive behavior?
Which of the following is not considered an important part of the scientific method?
Sociologists tend to study behavior at the _____ level, whereas social psychologists study behavior at the _____ level.
What distinguishes social psychology from other specialties in psychology is its
attention to the influence of situational context on behavior.
Social psychology differs from common sense in that
social psychology relies on the scientific method to test its theories.
The field of social psychology emerged as a distinct discipline around the end of the
Which of the following people is credited with publishing the first research article in social psychology?
Blaine works in a factory producing car stereos. He notices that workers produce more stereos by the end of the day when they work together in the same room than when they work in separate rooms. His observation is consistent with a classic study conducted by which of the following researchers?
According to the interactionist perspective, behavior is a result of the interaction between
personality and situations.
Social cognition can be best described as the study of
how we perceive, remember, and interpret information about the self and others.
The "hot" perspective in social psychology emphasizes _____, whereas the "cold" perspective emphasizes _____.
Social neuroscience is best described as the study of
the interaction of social and neural processes.
The role of natural selection processes in the development of social behavior is a concern in
An interdisciplinary subfield that focuses on how social and cognitive psychology relate to economic decision making is called
Dr. Tsuei is studying the effects of sleep deprivation on interpersonal skills. He is testing the interpersonal skills of 20-25 year-old males who have been sleep deprived for 24 hours, 36 hours, or 48 hours. In this study the dependent variable is
the interpersonal skills of the research participants.
A(n) _____ is someone who works for a researcher by serving as an "actor" in the research (e.g., pretending to be another research participant, and being mean to other research participants in order to see how participants respond to meanness).
Dr. Taylor is conducting a study to test the effect of a new drug on people's ability to concentrate at work. His research sample consists of 100 US adults. During a 14-week period, half of the sample is administered the drug and the other half is administered a placebo, and participants' concentration abilities are continually tracked. In the context of this study, if Dr. Taylor uses random assignment, it means that
each research participant has an equal chance of being assigned to each level of the independent variable (e.g., the placebo group or the drug group).
What is the main advantage of an experiment over a correlational study?
The researcher is better able to draw conclusions about cause and effect.
Construct validity is best defined as the extent to which
the operational definitions reflect the conceptual variables of interest.
A study that examines existing records or databases is referred to as a
The most important aspect of sampling in a survey study is
the extent to which the sample in this study matches the population proportionally in terms of demographic variables.
The stronger the relationship between two variables
the further from zero the correlation coefficient will be.
Which of the following is an example of a negative correlation?
The more alcohol you consume, the lower your GPA tends to be.
Causation cannot be inferred from correlational studies because
they do not involve the manipulation of variables.
In a well-designed experiment, all participants must
be treated in exactly the same manner except for the specific differences the experimenter wants to create.
In an experiment, the independent variable is _______ while the dependent variable is _______.
Participants who are subjected to all of the experimental procedures except the experimental manipulation are called
All of the following are considered "primary" emotions except
Which of the following is supported by research on deception?
People are more accurate at detecting deception if they focus on body movements rather than facial expressions
In Jones and Davis's correspondent inference theory, observers trying to infer whether a particular behavior corresponds to an enduring personal characteristic of the actor would ask all of the following questions except
What is the actor's perception of the behavior?
Monica uses the availability heuristic much more frequently than does Ross. Therefore, Monica is more likely than Ross to
estimate the likelihood of an event in terms of the ease with which instances of it come to mind.
Britney wonders if she would have been happier had she married Justin instead of Kevin. This illustrates
One way of defending our belief in a just world when we observe a victim suffering is to
disparage of the victim
The trait negativity bias refers to the tendency for
negative trait information to have a greater impact on impressions.
The primacy effect refers to the tendency for
people's impressions of others to be more affected by information that is learned early rather than late in a sequence.
Vernell is being interviewed for a job. Though it isn't really true, the interviewer suspects that Vernell is incompetent. Because the interviewer doesn't expect much from Vernell, he sits far away from her during the interview, interrupts her frequently, and seems distracted when she speaks. As a result, Vernell becomes nervous, starts to stutter, and loses her train of thought several times. The interviewer's final impression is that Vernell is, as he suspected, incompetent. This impression is most likely the result of
a self-fulfilling prophecy
The attributional perspective that addresses behaviors that occur over time, place, and different actors and targets is the
When people make the fundamental attribution error they tend to
underestimate the situational influences on people's behavior
According to the false consensus effect, most people
overestimate the degree to which others share their attitudes and opinions
The term self-concept refers to the
sum total of a person's beliefs concerning his or her own personal characteristics
According to the looking-glass model of self-concept development, the self-concept develops
from the way one is viewed by others.
According to self-perception theory, when people are uncertain about their thoughts or feelings regarding an activity, they will
infer their thoughts and feelings regarding that activity from their behavior
Marcia is unsure about whether Jan is her best friend. She thinks about how many times she has listened to Jan complain about her boyfriend, helped Jan study for difficult exams, and brought soup to Jan when she was sick. Marcia realizes that she speaks to Jan almost every night. After thinking about all this, Marcia concludes that Jan must be her best friend. This conclusion is based on a process described by
Which of the following is most consistent with the facial feedback hypothesis?
Facial expressions can trigger and magnify emotional states.
Motivation that is driven by rewards and punishments is called
According to social comparison theory, people are most likely to compare themselves to others who are
On his first day of class, Professor Saccamano thinks he is nervous because his blood pressure is up and his hands are shaking. He continues to feel this way, however, before every class meeting of the semester, and eventually realizes that his arousal is due to the five flights of stairs he must climb up to the classroom. Which theory best explains his misattribution?
two-factor theory of emotion
April was born and raised in an Eastern culture. She is more likely than people raised in Western cultures to
view relationships as an important part of her self-concept.
Consuela has a positive self-image. She is likely to do all of the following except
blame herself if she fails
Missy always calls Delfina to discuss and coordinate her choice of clothes each morning before leaving for school. If Delfina disapproves or suggests an alternative outfit, Missy always changes her clothes accordingly. Missy is probably
high in public self-consciousness.
People enhance their self-esteem in all of the following ways except
upward social comparison.
Which of the following best exemplifies self-handicapping?
Procrastinating in writing a paper
The tendency for people to think of those worse off than themselves when faced with difficulties of their own is called
downward social comparison
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