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Food Science Quiz 4 Chap. 10,11,12
Terms in this set (72)
Maillard Reaction (amino acids and sugar)
Reaction Between reducing sugar and protein at high temps.
Caramelization (only sugar and temp.)
Browning reaction resulting from direct heating of sugar at high temperature.
spontaneous movement of solvent molecules through a semi permeable membrane to a higher SOLUTE concentration.
High sugar syrup has a dehydrating action stopping bacteria from growing
Why is sugar often added at a high concentration when used as a preservative?
Polysaccharides bind with water
How can polysaccharides increase thickness of of soup?
polysaccharides are cryostablizers which bind with water making less molecules available to freeze.
How can sugar limit crystallization of ice cream?
It helps dough rise because of CO2, provides unique flavor
Why is glucose often added in bread making?
browning and color and flavor
What do maillard reaction and caramelization have in common?
fuel for yeast : process of converting carbohydrate to alcohol and carbon dioxide under anaerobic conditions.
Acid, alcohol, carbondioxide
What are the products of fermentation?
Baking: rise and flavor
Brewing: alcohol content
What is fermentation used for in the baking and brewing industry?
If the concentration outside the bacteria is greater water moves out of the bacteria cells.
How does the sugar draw water out of the bacteria?
Unsaturated fatty acids, have same chemical form but different structure, trans fatty acids have health concerns
Name three things that best describe cis and trans-fatty acids.
Source of energy, heat insulation, essential fatty acid, carrier of fat soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K), health benefits
List five roles of lipids
What is the difference between fat and oil?
Saturated fatty acids have NO double bonds; Unsaturated Fatty acids contain double bonds
What is the difference between a saturated and unsaturated fatty acid?
Risk heart disease because it raises bad cholesterol or LDL
What is the health concern associated with trans-fatty acids?
Cis (same side)
Trans (opposite side)
What is the difference between cis and trans fatty acids?
unsaturated fatty acids with health benefits
What are omega-3 fatty acids?
improve blood vessel function, reduces lipid lever raised HDL, limits cancer and Alzheimers.
What is the health benefits associated with omega-3 fatty acids?
butter, cheese, meat, whole milk, yogurt, cakes, cookies, lard, coconut oils, palm oil
name two examples of saturated fatty acids.
olives, nuts, peanuts
name two examples of unsaturated fatty acids.
Omega 3 fatty acids: salmon
Omega-6 fatty acids: sunflower seeds, wheat seeds, walnuts, soy
name two examples of omega fatty acids.
generally regard as safe. FDA approved
What are GRAS compounds?
adding hydrogen to convert oils to semi-solid
What is hydrogenation of oil?
Can decrease HDL
What is a health concern associated with hydrogentation?
Essential if for maintenance and well-being (not synthesized in the body)
What is the difference between and essential and non-essential fatty acids?
Linoleic (safflower oil)
Linolenic (flax seed)
One example of an essential fatty acid.
Short (4-10 C)
Medium (12-14 C)
Long (16+ C)
Classify fatty acids based on carbon chain length.
Draw a 16:0 fatty acid and label its functional end groups.
goat like smell
precursors of aroma, taste active compounds, texture control, modification, cooking medium
Role of lipids in food
LDL (Low density lipoproteins)
more lipid portion, less protein: bad cholesterol
High density lipoproteins (HDL)
more protein portion, less lipid: good Cholesterol
Methyl Free end
Omega 3 fatty acid critical for brain development
can lead to trans-fatty acid formation, increased rick of cardio disease due to decrease in HDL
Health concern from hydrogenation.
undesirable food quality
oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in presence of oxygen produces...
greater the unsaturation, more oxidation, double bonds in unsaturated fatty acids are susceptible to oxidation
Fatty acid composition affect on lipid oxidation
greater temp. more oxidation: greater temp can increase reaction rate
temperature effect on lipid oxidation
more oxygen more oxidation
Oxygen affect on lipid oxidation
uv-rays in light and heat can act as pro-oxidants
light affect on lipid oxidation
decreased food characteristics, nutrients, safety, and consumer acceptance
What problems can lipid oxidation lead to?
limit oxygen, limit light, cooler temp, antioxidants
How to limit lipid oxidation.
group of compounds that can limit lipid oxidation
what are antioxidants
Vitamin C, E, and polyphenols
Examples of natural antioxidants
Antioxidants can donate electron, less oxidation.
How do antioxidants limit lipid oxidation.
Milk enzyme that produces microbes such as lactic acid bacteria in cheese production
can act on lipids and form smaller chain fatty acids, which produce unique flavor
what can lipase do
what else can produce unique flavor from milk fat?
Separate when left standing alone
Semi Permanent emulsion
tendency of the emulsion to separate decreased by adding stabilizer
Very viscous, stable and do not separate
Permanent emulsion (mayo)
Food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics
Application of emulsion
fat is a medium that transfers heat to food without burning them
How does fat help with heat transfer
saturated vs. unsaturated
cis vs trans fatty acids
crystalline nature of fatty acids
factors affecting melting point of fat
which has a greater melting point? Saturated or unsaturated?
trans because trans fatty acids can align and have a strong bond
Which has a great m.p. cis or trans?
The larger the fat's _____ the high the m.p.
energy (9 cals), Fat soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K)
Nutrients fats provide in food
fried foods, absorb fat soluble flavor compounds from other foods
How does fat help with flavor
lubrication to moisten food: smooth rich tenderness, freshness
Fats help with texture
fat: takes longer to digest.
what give you the full feeling
Fat provides food pigments. like carotenoids
how does fat help with appearance
a compound that gives color
what is a pigment
grass contains carotenoids and carotenoids are fat soluble so the fat takes on the color
Why do grass fed cattle have yellow colored fat?
what give salmon the pinkish orange color
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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