Terms in this set (...)

Zimmerman telegram
supposedly sent from Germany's foreign secretary, Arthur Zimmerman, to the German minister in Mexico City; Zimmerman urged Mexico to join the Central Powers and in return they would help Mexico get back the territory that US had acquired; this telegram caused US to enter WWI
Selective Service Act, 1917
it was a draft; it demonstrated the increasing impact of the state on ordinary citizens
John J. Pershing
travelled to London and Paris to see how the US could best support the war; head of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF); he was reluctant to put his soldiers under foreign leadership;
American Expeditionary Force (AEF)
the government began sending armed convoys across the Atlantic; none were killed on the way to Europe;
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
the new Bolshevik regime surrendered about 1/3 of Russia's territories in return for an end to hostilities
Battle of Chateau-Thierry and Belleau Wood
Allied Forces brought the German offensive to a halt in mid-July;
Meuse-Argonne campaign
pushed the enemy back across the Selle River near Verdun and broke the German defenses, at a cost of over 20,000 American lives
an end to fighting; WWI ended with this on November 11, 1918;
American Legion
to preserve the memories and incidents of our association in the great war
Federal Reserve System
establish in 1913 to expand the money supply, making is easier to borrow money; 2/3 of the funds came from loans
War Revenue Bills (WIB)
produced an unparalleled expansion of the federal government's economic powers; it allocated scarce resources, gathered economic data and statistics, controlled the flow of raw materials, ordered the conversion from peacetime to war production, set prices, imposed efficiency and standardization procedures, and coordinated purchasing
Food Administration
exemplified reliance on voluntary compliance in mobilizing for war; wanted food for the soldiers
League of Nations
It became Wilson's obsession. It acted as a kind of international Federal Trade Commission, would supervise disarmament and -according to the crucial Article X of its covenant- curb aggressor nations through collective military action. It would mediate disputes between nations, preventing future wars.
Wilson's Fourteen Points
called for open diplomacy, "absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas," arms reduction, the removal of trade barriers, and an international commitment to national self-determination. They are imbued with the spirit of progressivism. Got the commitment of League of Nations and helped to make independent states.
Spoils of War
During WWII, this was the aftermath including the division of colonial empires that were separated among the winning allied nations. There were also reparations from Germany, which were set at $33 billion.
National self -determination
Wilson's vision of a multinational organization "for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike." This plan leads to the creation Austria, Hungary, Poland, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia. Yet this plan was unsuccessful in the freedom of colonial empires.
the number rose from 48 in 1917 t 78 in 1919. Several victims were hung with military uniforms on.
Red Scare
after the Russian revolution, this lead to American fear of radicals and hostility toward Bolshevik Reds. It also causes a decrease in membership of the Communist Party or the Communist Labor Party.
Russian Revolution- 1917
The Bolsheviks founded the Third International (or Comintern) in 1919 to export Communist doctrine throughout the world, Americans fears deepened.
this regime created the Third International in 1919 to export communistic ideas and it was through this that Americans felt the Red Scare.
US Communist Party
this political party suffered a loss of political power after the Red Scare.
Communist labor Party
this political party suffered a loss of political power after the Red Scare.
A. Mitchell Palmer
recently appointed attorney general who had a bomb detonated outside of his townhouse. He and his family escaped unharmed, but the bomber was blown to bits. He wanted a presidential nomination so he fanned fears of domestic radicalism. Started raids in 1919.
Palmer Raids
Started by an attorney general in November 1919 on the 2nd anniversary of the Russian Revolution. This included federal agents storing into headquarters of radical organizations, capturing supposedly revolutionary booty such as a set of blueprints for a phonograph (thought to be a bomb). These attacks lead to thousands of aliens who had committed no crime but were suspected because of their anarchist or revolutionary beliefs or their immigrant backgrounds.
Lacking the protection of U.S citizenship, thousands of aliens who committed no crime but were suspected because of their anarchist or revolutionary beliefs were kicked out of the country without formal trial or indictment.
Sacco & Vanzetti- 1920
A shoemaker and fish peddler were arrested for the robbery and murder of a shoe company's paymaster in South Braintree, Massachusetts. The two men, self- proclaimed anarchists and alien draft evaders, were both armed at the time of their arrest. Convicted in 1921, they sat on death row for 6 years while supporters appealed their verdicts. The judge denied a motion for a new trial despite new evidence. Historians agree they didn't get a fair trial due to their status as radicals and immigrants.