Microbiology Midterm

Foundations in Microbiology End of the Chapter Multiple choice
Which of the following is not considered a microorganism?
An area of Microbiology that is concerned with the occurrence of disease in human population is?
Which process involves the deliberate alternation of an organism's genetic material?
recombinant DNA
A prominent difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is the?
presence of a nucleus in eukayotes
Which of the following parts was absent from Leeuwehock's microscopes?
Abiogenesis refers to the?
spontaneous generation of organisms from nonliving matter
A hypothesis can be defined as?
A scientific explanation that is subject to testing
Which early microbiologist was most responsible for developing standard microbiology laboratory techniques?
Robert Koch
Which scientist is most responsible for finally laying the theory of spontaneous generation to rest?
Louis Pasteur
When a hypothesis has been thoroughly supported by long-term study and data, it is considered?
a Theory
Which is the correct order of the taxonomic categories, going from most specific to most general?
species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain
By definition organisms in the same ____ are more closely related than those in the same______.
class, phylum
Which of the following are prokaryotic?
both a and b
bacteria and archaea
Which of the following is not an emerging infectious disease?
common cold
Which of the following is not one of the six I's?
The term culture refers to the _______ growth of microorganisms in _______
A mixed culture is?
one that contains two or more known species
Agar is superior to gelatin as a solidifying agent because agar
both a and c
does not melt at room temperature
is not usually decomposed by microorganism
The process that most accounts for magnification is
refraction of light rays
A subculture is a
culture made from an isolated colony
Resolution is __________ with a longer wavelength of light
A real image is produced by the
A microscope that has a total magnification of 1,500X when using the oil immersion objective has an ocular of what power?
The specimen for an electron microscope is always
Motility is best observed with a
hanging drop preparation
Bacteria tend to stain more readily with cationic (positively charged) dyes because bacteria
contain large amounts of acidic substances
The primary difference between a TEM and SEM is in
preparation of the specimen
A fastidious organism must be grown on what type of medium?
enriched medium
What type of medium is udder to maintain the preserve specimens before clinical analysis?
transport medium
Which of the following is NOT an optical microscope?
atomic force
Which structure is not a component of all cells?
cell wall
Viruses are not considered living things because?
All of these are correct;
they are not cells
they cannot reproduce by themselves
they lack a metabolism
Which of the following is not found in all bacterial cells?
actin cytoskeleton
The major locomotor structures in bacteria are
Pili are tubular shafts in __bacteria that serve as a means of ___
gram-negative; genetic exchange
An example of a glycocalyx is
a capsule
Which of the following is a primary bacterial cell wall function?
Which of the following is present in both gram-positive and gram-negative cell wall?
Metachromatic granules are concentrated ___ found in ___
PO4; Corynebacterium
Bacterial endospores function in
An arrangement in packets of eight cells is described as a
The major difference between a spirochete and a spirillum is
the nature of motility
Which phylum contains bacteria with a gram-positive cell wall?
To which taxonomic group do cyanbacteria belong?
Domain Bacteria
Which stain is used to distinguish differences between the cell walls of medically important bacteria?
Gram Stain
The firriest living cell on earth was most similar to
an archaea
Both flagella and cilia are found primarily in
Features of the nuclear envelope include
all of these
a double membrane structure
pores that allow communication with the cytoplasm
The cell wall is usually found in which euakaryotes?
fungi; algae
Yeasts are ____ fungi, and molds are ___ fungi
A hypha divided into compartments by cross walls is called?
Algae generally contain some type of
Which characteristic(s) is/are not typical of protozoan cells
The protozoan trophozoite is the
inactive dormant stage
Parasitic helminths reproduce with
eggs and sperm
Mitochondria likely originated from
purple bacteria
Human fungal infections involve and affect what areas of the human body?
are localized to the one site in the body
A virus is a tiny infectious
Viruses are known to infect
all organisms
The capsid is composed of protein subunits called
The envelope of an animal virus is derived from ___ of its own host cell.
The nucleic acid of a virus is
either DNA or RNA
The general steps in a viral multiplication cycle are
adsorption, penetration, synthesis, assembly, and release
A prophage is a/an___ stage in the cycle of _____
latent, bacterial viruses
The nucleic acid of animal viruses enters the host cell through
B and C
In general, RNA viruses multiply in the cell____ and DNA viruses multiply in the cell____.
cytoplasm, nucleus
Enveloped viruses carry surface receptors called
Viruses that persist in the cell and cause recurrent disease are considered
Viruses cannot be cultivated in
blood agar
Clear patches in cell cultures that indicate sites of virus infections are called?
Which of these is not a general pattern of virus morphology?
complex helical
An organic nutrient essential to an organism's metabolism that cannot be synthesized itself is a termed
growth facto
The source of the necessary elements of life is
an inorganic environmental reservoir
An organism that can synthesize all its required organic components from CO2 using energy from the sun is a
An obligate halophile requires high
Chemoautotrophs can survive on____alone.
minerals and CO2
Which of the following substances are required by all organisms?
inorganic nutrients
A pathogen would most accurately be described as a
Which of the following is true of passive transport
it requires a gradient
A cell exposed to a hypertonic environment will____by osmosis.
lose water
Active transport of a substance across a membrane requires
the expenditure of ATP
Psychrophiles would be expected to grow
at refrigeration temperatures
Which of the following is not involved in quorum sensing?
release of genetic material
Superoxide ion is toxic to strict anaerobes because they lack
The time required for a cell to undergo binary fission is called the
generation time
In a viable plate count, each _____ represents a ______ from the sample population.
The stage in population growth with the highest rate of cell division is the
log phase