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Cellular Respiration: Electron Transport Chain and ATP Synthesis
Terms in this set (16)
What is the Electron Transport Chain?
It is the last stage of Cellular Respiration.
How does the Electron Transport Chain use high-energy electrons from Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle?
Glycolysis generates high-energy electrons that are passed to NAD+, forming NADH. Those NADH molecules can enter the Mitochondrion, where they join the NADH and the FADH2 generated by the Krebs Cycle. The electrons are then passed from all those carriers to the Electron Transport Chain. The Electron Transport Chain then uses the high-energy electrons from Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle to convert ADP to ATP.
How do high-energy electrons get to the Electron Transport Chain?
NADH and FADH2 pass their high-energy electrons to the Electron Transport Chain.
What is the Electron Transport Chain composed of?
A series of electron carriers.
How does the Electron Transport Chain function in Eukaryotes?
In eukaryotes, the Electron Transport Chain is composed of a series of electron carriers located in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.
How does the Electron Transport Chain function in Prokaryotes?
In prokaryotes, the same chain is in the cell membrane.
What happens during Electron Transport?
High-energy electrons are transported from one carrier to the next. Every 2 high-energy electrons pass down the Electron Transport Chain, their energy is used to transport Hydrogen Ions across the membrane.
What happens to Hydrogen Ions during Electron Transport?
During Electron Transport, Hydrogen Ions build up in the intermembrane space, making it positively charged relative to the Matrix. Similarly, the Matrix side of the membrane, from which this Hydrogen Ions have been taken, is now negatively charged compared to the intermembrane space.
What happens at the end of the Electron Transport Chain?
At the end of the Electron Transport Chain is an enzyme that combines these electrons with hydrogen and oxygen to form water.
What is Oxygens role at the end of the Electron Transport Chain.
Oxygen serves as the final electron acceptor of the Electron Transport Chain. Thus, oxygen is essential for getting rid of low-energy electrons and hydrogen ions, the wastes of Cellular Respiration. Without oxygen the Electron Transport Chain cannot function.
In ATP Production, how does the cell use potential energy from charge differences built up as a result of Electron Transport?
As in Photosynthesis, the cell uses a process known as Chemiosmosis to produce ATP.
Where do the enzymes known as ATP Synthases live?
They live in the Inner Mitochondrial Membrane.
What happens to the Hydrogen Ions in the Inner Mitochondrial Membrane?
The charge differences across the membrane forces Hydrogen Ions through channels in the enzymes, actually causing the ATP Synthases to spin.
What happens when ATP Synthases spin.
With each rotation, the enzyme grabs and ADP molecule and attaches a phosphate group, producing ATP.
What happens in ATP Production?
This couples the movement of high-energy electrons with the production of ATP. Every time a pair of high-energy electrons moves down the Electron Transport Chain, the energy is used to move Hydrogen Ions across the Membrane. These Ions then rush back across the Membrane with enough force to spin the ATP Synthase and generate enormous amounts of ATP.
On average, how many Molecules of ATP can each pair of High-Energy Electrons that move down the full length of the Electron Transport Chain provide?
It provides enough energy to produce 3 Molecules of ATP.
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