Educational Psychology, Educational Psychology
Terms in this set (44)
Concerns of Educational Psychology
Applying psychological principles to the classroom
strength and direction of a relationship
genetically-programmed biological changes
Thinking processes change radically, though slowly, as we constantly strive to make sense of the world. Four factors interact to influence changes in thinking: biological maturation, activity, social experiences, equilibration; organization and adaptation of schemata; assimilation and accommodation; equilibration and disequilibration;
Piaget-Four Stages of Development
Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, Formal Operational
Practice, problem solving, making connections, inquiry; basic building block of thinking and memory
Piaget-The foundation of development is supplied by
biological maturation, activity, social experiences, and equilibration
Piaget-balance between cognitive schemes and the environment
Actual changes in thinking come from equilibration, the act of searching for cognitive balance. If we're introduced to something that fits into a preexisting scheme, equilibrium. If it doesn't fit, we feel uncomfortable until we figure it out.
Existence of four distinct stages
Sociocultural theory; Cooperative dialogue between children and others who are more knowledgeable
Talking it out, helps self-regulation
Assisted learning with cues from more knowledgable individual
the space between what the child can do unassisted and the learning goal
Explores the social element of development (bioecological)
emphasizes the emergence of the self, the search for identity, the individual's relationships
with others, and the role of culture throughout life. (psychosocial)
Children become confident in their own abilities, or develop shame and doubt
Erikson-Crises least likely to be encountered in the K-12 classroom
Basic trust v. mistrust, Autonomy v. shame, Middle adulthood, Late adulthood
Evaluated moral reasoning by presenting moral dilemmas to subjects; developed six stages of moral reasoning
Difference between maturation and development
Development refers to the changes that occur in a person's life. Maturation is one part of development.
When students watch others behave aggressively...
They tend to adopt that behavior
Labeling exceptional children is...
a controversial issue.
Inability to do something specific such as pronounce words or see or walk.
Cattell and Horn's theory of intelligence
Fluid intelligence: Mental efficiency, nonverbal
abilities grounded in brain development.
Crystallized intelligence: Ability to apply
culturally approved problem-solving methods.
Developed triarchic theory: intelligence is more than mental (analytic, creative, practical intelligences)
Was interested in identifying learning disabilities early; developed IQ test
Best assessment to determine giftedness
Parts of an IEP
1. Present levels of performance
2. Measurable goals for next year
3. Assessment participation
Largest category of students with disabilities
Best intervention to use with ADD student
Incorporate movement, clear expectations, short assignments/directions
Prevents discrimination against people with disabilities in any program that receives federal money, such as public schools.
What is Educational Psychology?
The study and application of psychological principles that influence teaching and learning
A mental idea, or organised mental representation, of what something is and how to deal with it
A dog is furry, has four legs and a tail
The action of taking new information or experiences and incorporating them into our existing ideas, trying to fit the information into our pre-existing schemas.
A young child learns the word DOG for the family pet, and he sees other canines at the park that fits the characteristics of his pet (four legs, tail) therefore he calls these ones a dog too.
The process of balancing the task of assimilation and accommodation in order to reduce the tension and confusion that was created.
Occurs when a child's schemas can deal with most new information through assimilation.
When does disequilibrium occur?
During times of rapid cognitive change causing cognitive discomfort
we realise new information doesn't match our current schemata
.. thereby, producing more effective schemata
When knowledge doesn't work and needs to be changed to fit the situation the individual will create a new schema to adapt.
If a child had learnt that a dog had four legs and barks, then they see a cat which also has four legs but didn't bark, they would have to make a new schema to fit this new animal.
Vygotsky's Social Constructivist Theory
• Vygotsky viewed cognitive development as a socially mediated process
• Development springs from active participation in conversations and social activities
• Language plays a crucial role in cognitive development - it enables social interaction and self-regulation or reflection
Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development
• Each person's range of potential for learning
• Distance between actual developmental level and level of potential development
• i.e. a problem that an individual can solve by themselves and a problem that can only be solved with guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers
• Teachers role is to present learning that lies within (preferably at the top of) the zone
Piaget and Vygotsky both emphasise:
• a constructivist approach
• the importance of active involvement
• the process of learning, rather than the product
• peer interaction
• grounding learning experiences in real world experiences
• learning as an intentional process of constructing meaning from experience
• Encoding - process of converting into a form that can be represented and retained in memory. There are 3 main ways information can be encoded: visual (picture), acoustic (sound), semantic (meaning)
• Storage - process of retaining information in memory for later use
• Retrieval - process of locating and recovering information into consciousness
• Level of challenge - suited to capability
• Curiosity - interesting, personally relevant & meaningful
• Choice and control - feelings of competence and autonomy
• Situational interest - i.e. fantasy or simulation games