22 terms

PSC 121 Chapter 2 (Exam 1 Study)

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3 key ideas in The Declaration of Independence
legitimate gov. can be established only by the people, is created to protect inalienable rights, and can govern only with their consent
omissions in The Declaration of Independence
slavery, rights of women, Native Americans, and African-Americans who were not slaves
Articles of Confederation
original form of government: a loose confederation of independent states with little power in central government; most important decisions were made by the states
shortcomings of The Articles
central gov. could not finance its activities, central gov. could not defend America's interests in foreign affairs, states became intense commercial rivals
Republicanism
political doctrine advocating limited government based on popular consent, protected against majority tyranny
tyranny
the abuse of inalienable rights of citizens by government
stay acts
forbade farm foreclosures for nonpayment of debts; passed by some states under The Articles
Shay's Rebellion
armed men took over court houses in Massachusetts in order to prevent judges from ordering the seizure of farms for nonpayment of state taxes
number of delegates at Constitutional Convention
73 were chosen, but only 55 showed up
The Great Compromise
bicameral (two-house) national legislature, one house (House of Rep) representation based on population, in the other (Senate) equal representation among all states
3 mentions of slavery in The Constitution
count 3/5 of slave population, forbade enactments against the slave trade until 1808, required the return of runaway slaves, even in non-slave states
Electoral College
each state would have a total of votes equal to its total number of representatives and senators in Congress
federal system
powers are divided between a central government and smaller governments
supremacy clause
national gov. > state/local gov.
elastic cause
gives Congress the authority to make whatever laws are necessary to carry out its responsibilities
terms for gov. officials
representatives - 2, presidents - 4, senators - 6
separation of powers
distribution of powers to separate branches of government
checks and balances
each branch of government has the power to hinder the others
free enterprise
an economic system characterized by competitive markets and private ownership; similar to cap
federalists
proponents of the Constitution during the ratification fight
anti-federalists
opponents of the Constitution during the ratification fight
judicial review
the power of the Supreme Court to declare actions of the other branches and levels of government unconstitutional