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Marine Creatures Skills Test

Terms in this set (46)

Sea turtles can be found in oceans except for the polar regions.
Sea turtles are generally found in the waters over continental shelves. During the first three to five years of life, sea turtles spend most of their time in the pelagic zone floating in seaweed mats where they find shelter and food. Once the sea turtle has reached adulthood it moves closer to the shore. The loggerhead, Kemp's ridley, olive ridley, hawksbill, flatback, and leatherback sea turtles are omnivorous for their entire life. Omnivorous turtles may eat a wide variety of plant and animal life including, decapods, seagrasses, seaweed, sponges, mollusks, cnidarians, echinoderms, worms and fish. However some species specialize on certain prey.
The diet of green turtles changes with age. Juveniles are omnivorous, but as they mature they become exclusively herbivorous eating sea grass and algae.
Leatherback turtles feed almost exclusively on jellyfish and help control jellyfish populations
Hawksbills principally eat sponges, which constitute 70-95% of their diets in the Caribbean.Most sea turtle mortality happens early in life. Sea turtles usually lay around one hundred eggs at a time, on average only one of the eggs from the nest will survive to adulthood.Nests may be raided by raccoons and foxes. Within minutes of hatching, hatchlings may be eaten by raccoons, foxes, seabirds, as they make their initial run for the ocean. Once in the water, they are susceptible to seabirds, large fish and even other turtles.
Adult sea turtles have few predators. Large aquatic carnivores such as sharks and crocodiles are the biggest threat. Reports of terrestrial predators attacking nesting females are not uncommon. Jaguars have been reported to smash into the turtle's shell with its paw, and scoop out the flesh.
In salt water, often called "seaweed." In freshwater, mostly "green algae." Algae are prominent in bodies of water, common in terrestrial environments, and are found in unusual environments, such as on snow and ice. Seaweeds grow mostly in shallow marine waters, under 100 m (330 ft) deep; however, some have been recorded to a depth of 360 m (1,180 ft).
Phytoplankton provide the food base for most marine food chains. In very high densities (algal blooms), these algae may discolor the water and outcompete, poison, or asphyxiate other life forms.

Algae can be used as indicator organisms to monitor pollution in various aquatic systems. In many cases, algal metabolism is sensitive to various pollutants. Due to this, the species composition of algal populations may shift in the presence of chemical pollutants. Symbiotic relationship with the coral reef
Coral reefs are accumulated from the calcareous exoskeletons of marine invertebrates. These animals metabolize sugar and oxygen to obtain energy for their cell-building processes, including secretion of the exoskeleton, with water and carbon dioxide as byproducts. Dinoflagellates (algal protists) are often endosymbionts in the cells of the coral-forming marine invertebrates, where they accelerate host-cell metabolism by generating immediately available sugar and oxygen through photosynthesis using incident light and the carbon dioxide produced by the host. Reef-building stony corals (hermatypic corals) require endosymbiotic algae from the genus Symbiodinium to be in a healthy condition.

Green algae live close to the surface of some sea sponges. The alga is thus protected from predators; the sponge is provided with oxygen and sugars which can account for 50 to 80% of sponge growth in some species.

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