AP Lang Term 4 exam review
Terms in this set (36)
a method of reasoning that involves three statements; the truth of the first two statements prove that the third must also be true
Kylie goes to SUA. SUA girls wear wool skirts. Kylie wears a wool skirt.
All love is wonder; if we justify do Account her wonderful, why not lovely too? (Love is wonderful. She is wonderful. She is lovely)
the technique and art of using language effectively and persuasively in spoken or written form to convince, influence or please an audience
the sentence structure of using a conjunction (usually and) in a series without commas to place equal emphasis on each item in the series
-Go out quickly to the streets and lanes of the city, and bring in the poor and crippled and blind and lame
an emotional appeal (think of every ASPCA commercial with the sad dogs and Arms of an Angel song)
an implied (not obvious) comparison of two unlike things that share a common characteristic
-"Snob nosed monsters, raiding the dust and sticking their snouts into it," yet another description of the tractors
-So we beat on, boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly to the past
-Jesus answered, "I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me
this rhetorical technique involves a speaker asking a question and then answering it. This reassure the audience of the speaker's "truth" because she poses a question and delivers the "real answer"
-Ask any mermaid you happen to see. 'Whats the best tuna?' Chicken of the Sea
-After all whats a life, anyway? We're born, we live a little while, we die
This is what we do! When you explicate a text, you are analyzing the meaning of the text by paying attention to literary devices and rhetorical strategies used by the author
-explication is the act of analyzing a work
Using gentler language to describe something inappropriate or uncomfortable to talk about
-When someone dies, we use a variety of euphemisms to avoid saying "died" (we say: expired, passed away)
-Ugly (homely, plain, great face for radio)
-stupid (thick, not the brightest crayon in the box)
repetition of the ending word or phrases in a succession of clauses or sentences
-And that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the Earth
-When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child
repetition of the starting word or phrases in a succession of clauses or sentences
-I want to shake off the dust of this one horse town. I want to explore the world. I want to watch TV in a different time zone. I want to visit strange, exotic malls. I want a grinder, a sub. I want to live!
this is a string of items in a series with absolutely NO conjunctions. Opposite of Polysyndeton. This is a technique to bring attention to the list of terms in yet another way because it avoids the usual comma rules regarding items in a series
-She was stronger, faster, better
The reasoning technique of moving from a general idea to a more specific point. Opposite of Induction
-free access to public education is a key factor in the success of industrialized nations like the US (major premise)
-India is working to become a successful, industrialized nation (specific case)
-Therefore, India should provide free access to public education for its citizens (conclusion)
this appeal relies of establishing the credibility of the speaker so that the audience trusts the information. If the speaker is credible, her words can be trusted
-every time Oprah approves a book for her "book club," the book becomes a popular read because readers trust Oprah. She's a well known television host and celebrity
-Kim K contours her face and wears a waist trainer. Guess what became popular trends after she was seen doing either
This is the appeal to logic. Facts, statistics, and reasoning are used to persuade the audience
you've already seen induction, deduction, and syllogism. These are all types of logos.
-4 out of 5 dentists use Crest
This structure involves sequential parts of a sentence or sequence of sentences that are grammatically the same. This adds to the grace and flow of a sentence.
-this is not only just what I wanted, but also just what I needed
Contrasting (opposite) ideas presented in balanced or parallel construction within one or more sentences
-this is distinct from oxymoron because instead of just terms in contrast, antithesis has full ideas in contrast
-Willing to wound and yet afraid to strike
-We must learn to live together as brothers or perish together as fools
-Money is the root of all evils, poverty is the fruit of all goodness
an extreme exaggeration for emphasis
EX: I havent seen you in forever
the juxtaposition of two contrasting terms. These terms are in conjunction (used together)
-this is distinct from antithesis because antithesis presents contrasting ideas that are in the same sentence
-EX: Parting is such sweet sorrow (sorrow isnt sweet)
-I must be cruel to be kind
reference to the past, well-known ideas, other literature, etc.
-"The cunningham's are country folks, farmers, and THE CRASH hit them hardest."
-the crash is an allusion to the Stock Market Crash of 1929 that kicked off the Great Depression
A comparison to aid in explanation (extended)
-"It is obvious today that America HAS DEFAULTED ON THIS PROMISSORY NOTE insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check; a check which has come back marked 'insufficient funds.'"
-comparing a default on a bank document (failure to pay as promised) to the failure of the society to honor its promises to Black America
-metaphors grow into an analogy
Local language/ language that is informal:
-"Thanks, buddy," he said. "MY DOGS was pooped out
-"my dogs" is slang for his feet
-give own colloquialism (modern colloquialism for extra credit on test) (turnt;rachet)
-the meanings associated with a term beyond the literal:
-Black is mourning, the end, secrets, magic, power, violence, evil, and elegance in fashion
The literal meaning of a term (think dictionary definition):
-Black is the hue that results of the absence, or complete absorption, of light
"the wing flung a magpie away and a BLACK-BACK GULL BENT like an iron bar slowly"
-"the difficult sequence of sounds in the lines (above) prevent the verse flowing smoothly, reflecting the gull's hard struggle against the wind
-should be difficult to say to emphasize how hard the subject is struggling
A judgement made with limited or insufficient evidence
-"Even though its only the first day, I can tell this is going to be a boring course"
-after one day?? C'mon
switching the normal syntactic order of a sentence for effect
" IN XANADU DID KUBLA KHAN"
-Think of the way Yoda speaks
-"Judge me by my size, do you?"
any error in reasoning
-For example, false syllogism
-Ex: Killer dogs are very muscular in shape
-Pit bulls are very muscular
-Pit bulls are killer dogs
a recurrent element of a piece that helps to build the theme
-A recurring motif in George Orwell's 1984 is urban decay. Winston Smiths run down home, London's crumbling buildings, and the overall disintegration of the city all support Orwell's theme of the miserable results of total government control
Countering negative statements with positive that follow them
-Now the trumpet summons us again- not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need-not as a call to battle, though embattled we are- but a call to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle
(i'm not going to do this, or this, but i will do this; negative always comes first; at least two)
Learn from ME, if not by MY precepts, at least by MY example
-word vomit; stream of words how you think it (unfiltered thought that a character has)
"Nonsense you look like a girl you are lots younger than Candace color in your cheeks like a girl A face reproachful tearful an odor of camphor and of tears a voice weeping steadily and softly beyond the twilit door the twilight colored smell of honey suckle"
WE KNOW EVERYTHING! Every thought and actions of all characters is revealed in the text
We really only know all and see all of one character's experiences. Our view is limited in that way
There is no bias in the depiction of characters or events. The narrator has no attitude toward the story itself (no descriptive language)
Ernest Hemingway uses long, lumbering, and complex structures to emphasize the laziness of his character
-They left me alone and I lay in bed and read the papers awhile, the news from the front, and the list of dead officers with their decorations and then reached down and brought up the bottle of Cinzano and held it straight up on my stomach....
this is a direct comparison that uses words such as like, as, or than
-be still; dont struggle so, like a wild frantic bird that is rending its own plumage in its desperation
-what happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up like a raisin in the sun? Or fester like a sore--And then run?
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