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Microbiology exam 2 previous test questions
Terms in this set (139)
a virus is not considered living because...
They have no mechanism to generate ATP
they have no metabolism and no ribosomes
the negative effects of viruses on animal host are usually associated with...
effects on the immune system and/or cell lysis following replication
can cause cancer in some animal cells
the most effective way to prevent viral disease is to...
what would be the first step in any viral infection...
which might be used to classify viruses?
presence or absence of an envelope
the bacteria that produce botulinum toxin, scarlet fever toxin, and diphtheria toxin all contain a(an)...
viroids are responsible for...
potato spindle tubular disease
budding with respect to viruses has to do with...
formation of the envelope
are altered versions of the brain cell protein
a disease specifically associated with eating dead relatives brains in certain african tribes is
kuru (Papaw New Guinea, not african in the question...)
why cant we convert lead to gold with the help of an enzyme?
the reaction is not spontaneous
B vitamins are an an example of...
factors that effect enzyme activity include...
Temp, PH, substrate concentration
why isn't (PEP) phosphoenolpyruvate, with twice the energy of ATP, the energy currency of the cell?
it requires too much energy to make it.
we can survive in the presence of molecular oxygen (O2) because...
we produce superoxide dismutase
proteins are not considered nutrients for a cell because...
they are simply to big to get into the cell
bacteria reproduce by
binary fission only.
is the direct utilization of atmospheric nitrogen by living organisms
someday might fix the dent in the worlds hunger problem
occurs in some microorganisms
a microorganism that is found in an acidic mine (PH1.0)
will probably die in the neutral PH medium
Which statement is correct?
a.Placing a mesophile at a hyperthermophilic temperature will probably kill it.
b.Placing a hyperthermophile at a mesophilic temperature will probably kill it.
c.Placing a mesophile at a hyperthermophilic temperature will probably have the same effect as placing a hyperthermophile at a mesophilic temperature.
d.Placing a mesophile at a hyperthermophilic temperature and placing a hyperthermophile at a mesophilic temperature will not affect the organisms.
e.None of the above.
in which phase of the microbial growth curve do microbial deaths balance production of new cells
what describes a microorganism that can use the inorganic compound, hydrogen sulfide as an energy source?
what are the most important PRODUCTS of fermentation?
fermentation end products and NAD+
most of the CO2 released by an organism performing respiration is released in...
the krebs cycle
an organism that can use the krebs cycle and make fermentation products
is most likely a facultative anaerobe.
streptococcus is missing an enzyme in the krebs cycle. It carries out...
fermentation only (does not bubble when hydrogen peroxide is placed on it = no respiration)
-gets its energy from glycolysis
-ferments lactic acid only
-does not use the electron transport chain for energy production
which bacterium made Chaim Weizmann famous?
clostridium- supposedly influenced the outcome of world war II
which method(s) of phosphorylation requires electron transport chains?
oxidative and photo-
a major difference between fermentation and respiration is...
fermentation uses an inorganic final electron acceptor. `
the end products and the amount of energy harvested
we need molecular oxygen...
to serve as a final electron acceptor only
which organism, that we discussed in class, can respire aerobically and anaerobically, and carry our fermentation?
in biological oxidations, what is typically removed from a molecule?
Which of the following is a reduction reaction?
a. NADH NAD+
b. Glucose pyruvic acid
c. Pyruvic acid lactic acid
d. Lactic acid pyruvic acid
e. None of the above
C. pyruvic acid to lactic acid
which of the following occurs in the bacterial cell membrane?
a. Glycolysis and the Kreb's Cycle
b. Glycolysis and the Electron Transport Chain
c. The Kreb's Cycle and the Electron Transport Chain
d. The Kreb's Cycle only.
e. The Electron Transport Chain only
e. the electron transport chain only
which of the following contains the most amount of energy?
b. Pyruvic acid
c. Lactic acid
ATP synthase is involved in...
is the site of oxidative phosphorylation
the proton motive force...
requires an intact cell membrane
can do work directly within the cell
can be used to bring certain amino acids into cells
the core pathways are...
the krebs cycle and glycolysis (do not include the electron transport chain)
the poison cyanide interferes with...
the electron transport chain.
the most basic definition of a virus would be...
protein coat (capsid) and nucleic acid
is responsible for clostridium botulinum being pathogenic
can induce the immune system to produce fever
vary in shape and contain nucleic acid
reproduce inside of a host cell
diseases caused by prions include
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy. (mad cow disease)
proteins, but not all proteins are enzymes
catalyze ONLY spontaneous reactions
can catalyze reactions that would take a year to occur on their own
which nutrient categories include amino acids?
essential metabolites, carbon and nitrogen sources
molecular oxygen is not listed in a required nutrient category because...
molecular oxygen is not broken down for energy or directly utilized for biosynthetic reactions.
organisms that would not grow well in hot springs ( 95 degree c) are refered to as
a bacterium with optimal growth temperature of 37 degree c
will probably grow more slowly at 20 degree C
the optimal growth temperature of a bacterium is most closely related to the optimal temperature for...
functioning of enzymes
which method does not count strictly anaerobic living cells?
spread plate method of dilution and plating
cells enter the stationary phase of growth because
the have run out of nutrients and there may be toxic by products.
conceivably, the most common type of life on our planet that can "eat" inorganic compounds (sulfur) for energy would be called a...
a coenzyme and electron donor
in prokaryotes, the electron transport chain is found in the...
final electron acceptors in fermentation include
the COMPLETE oxidation of glucose results in
an organism that is reducing pyruvic acid only is...
carrying out fermentation
generates less energy than aerobic respiration
substrate level phosphorylation occurs in...
glycolysis and the krebs cycle
Which statement is correct?
a. The energy to drive protons into the bacterial cell through the cell membrane comes from ATP.
b. The energy to drive protons out through the bacterial cell membrane comes from electrons.
c. The proton motive force is found in the Core Pathways.
d. The proton motive force is used for all oxidation-reduction reactions in the cell.
e. All of the above.
the organic breakdown products of lipids eventually end up in...
glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle
building blocks for biosynthesis come from...
the core pathways
the correct sequence of events for animal virus lytic infection cycle is
Attachment, penetration, uncoating, biosynthesis, maturation and release.
a viral envelop is acquired in which step?
lysogenic conversion is
when a lysogenized cell simply has a new characteristic.
if you were setting up an experiment on viruses, which of the following would be important to maintain the viruses used in the experiment?
all enzymes only catalyze
what are nutrients for bacteria?
Amino acids, ammonium ion, glucose
is found in all animals
is found in all plants
is found in some bacteria
a microorganism that prefers temp at 20 degrees c can cause serious food spoilage at refrigeration temperatures is referred to as..
A microbiology student noticed that a culture broth tube was very turbid at the surface but clear throughout the rest of the tube. What can this student correctly conclude?
the organisms are aerobes
the quickest and most convenient way to measure bacterial growth is...
one possible drawback to using the direct microscope method...
you are counting dead and living cells
the phase of growth where the cells are adjusting to the growth conditions is called
the lag phase
metabolism is made up of how many chemical reactions
bacteria that require organic carbon and photosynthesize are...
the type of ATP generation where the source of phosphate is an organic molecule is referred to as
the majority of organisms on planet earth are most likely
humans and ecoli are...
during respiration, the majority of reduced carbon atoms in glucose are oxidized to carbon dioxide in...
the krebs cycle
An organism such as Streptococcus, that is missing an enzyme in the Kreb's Cycle, typically carries out
what is the fate of pyruvic acid in an organism that uses the aerobic respiration?
it is oxidized in the krebs cycle (most of its carbons are oxidized in the krebs cycle)
what is true about fermentation?
it allows for the production of NAD+ and gets rid of pyruvate
what produces the most ATP
is the addition of phosphate to a molecule
relies on an intact cel membrane
has more energy than reduced oxygen
a bacterium that can use O2, nitrate, pyruvate as a final electron acceptor will probably perform...
a. Some fermenting bacteria can only produce_______ fermentation product.
why are viruses not considered alive
they are not cellular
what is associated with a viral capsid?
protects nucleic acid
receptor binding cite
shape of the virus
composed of capsomeres
viral envelopes are...
derived from the cell membrane of the host cell
when an animal DNA virus infects a cell
DNA replication takes place inside a host cell
one thing that a bacteriophage normally does than an animal virus may or may not do is
lyse the host cell
sometimes results in the host cell losing toxins
the model for how a prion works is that...
the infections protein causes normal brain proteins to become altered
the factor that effects enzyme activity that would most likely denature an enzyme
what is not considered a nutrient for microorganisms
molecular oxygen is
an electron acceptor in some living organisms
A disadvantage to the dilution and plating technique is
it does not count the aerobes buried in the agar
stationary growth phase is achieved because
the cell runs out of nutrients and end products build up
direct transfer of a phosphate group from an organic molecule to ADP is called
When lactic acid is converted into pyruvic acid, NADH is formed. The reaction that forms NADH is a(an)
microorganisms that are found relatively deep below the surface of the earth are most likely
organisms that are basically saprophytes (eat dead or decaying organic matter) like humans
What is transferred to NAD+ during the breakdown of glucose?
getting rid of pyruvic acid
In a test tube of medium constantly exposed to oxygen at the surface of the medium, E. coli, which can respire and ferment, forms some acidic fermentation products. This occurs because
oxygen is being depleted at the bottom of the tube
characteristics of fermentation
-end producs can include, acids, gases and alcohols
-does not require oxygen
-occurs following glycolysis
-utilizes pyruvic acid
Once pyruvic acid enters the fermentation reactions, the most important and direct product of fermentation that benefits the fermenting cell is
is the addition of a phosphate to a molecule
Electrons on NADH
have more energy than electrons that are transferred to oxygen.
1. Which statement is true?
a. Lipids are broken down into glycerol and amino acids which enter the Core Pathways.
b. Sugars enter the Core Pathways at the Electron Transport Chain.
c. Amino acids enter the Core Pathways at glycolysis and the Kreb's Cycle.
d. All of the above.
e. None of the above.
oxidation reactions and reduction reactions.
viruses simply want to ___________
are the protein unit that makes up the capsid
Clostridium botulinum produces a toxin because
it contains a prophage
if you have a pet potato and you dont want it to get sick keep it away from
if you see a deer staggering in the woods you might want to steer away from it because it might have
chronic waste disease
the breakdown of lactose into glucose and galactose
is a spontaneous reaction
ATP is the energy currency of living cells because
the amount of energy used to make ATP is reasonable for the cell
slows down at lower and greater than optimal temp.
Wild type Ecoli does not require as a nutrient
With respect to temperature, organisms that grow optimally at human body temperature of 37oC are referred to as
in which phase are bacterial cells producing most rapidly
log phase only
The oxidation of glucose ultimately to carbon dioxide is an example of
oxidative phosphorylation is directly associated with
the electron transport chain
In biological oxidations, what is typically removed from a molecule
E.coli, in the presence of molecular oxygen and nitrate, predominantly carries out
Fatty acids, which are break-down products from fats, enter metabolism
in one of the core pathways
which of the following is the best definition or fermentations
The partial oxidation of glucose with organic molecules serving as electron acceptors
an envelope is declared during
building blocks from biosynthesis come from
the core pathways
which of the following contains the most amount of energy
Glucose (if glucose is not present NADH)
vitamins usually fall into which category
final electron acceptors in metabolism
O2 and pyruvate
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