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APES Chapters 8-9 Study Set
Terms in this set (207)
value of an organism, species, ecosystem, or the earth's biodiversity based on its existence, regardless of whether it has any usefulness to humans. Compare instrumental value.
are those that assign value to the environment as a function of its economic or survival benefits for humans
based on human appreciation of natural beauty
assign rights to natural entities such as individual species and ecosystems
species is extinct all over the world
occurs when a species disappears from a part of its range but it persists elsewhere
species that disappear at a low rate. The average annual rate has been one to five species for each million species on the earth.
a significant rise in extinction rates above the background level
When substantial preliminary evidence
indicates that an activity can harm human health
or the environment, we should take precautionary
measures to prevent or reduce such harm even if some
of the cause-and-effect relationships have not been fully
established scientifically. It is based on the commonsense
idea behind many adages, including "Better safe
than sorry," and "Look before you leap."
the action of clearing a wide area of trees.
a managed forest containing
only one or two species of trees that are all of the
same age. They are usually harvested by clear-cutting as
soon as they become commercially valuable. The land
is then replanted and clear-cut again in a regular cycle.
old growth forests
an uncut or
regenerated forest that has not been seriously disturbed
by human activities or natural disasters for several hundred
years or more.
Are reservoirs of biodiversity because they provide ecological
niches for a multitude of wildlife species
second growth forest
a stand of trees resulting
from secondary ecological succession. These
forests develop after the trees in an area have been
removed by human activities, such as clear-cutting for timber or cropland, or by natural forces such as fire,
hurricanes, or volcanic eruption
a managed forest containing
only one or two species of trees that are all of the
same age. They are usually harvested by clear-cutting as
soon as they become commercially valuable. The land
is then replanted and clear-cut again in a regular cycle.
When managed carefully, such plantations can produce
wood at a fast rate and thus increase their owners'
profits. Some analysts project that eventually, tree plantations
could supply most of the wood used for industrial
purposes such as papermaking. This would help to
protect the world's remaining old-growth and secondary
cause soil erosion,
water pollution, and
loss of wildlife
habitat. the most efficient way for a logging operation
to harvest trees, but it can do considerable harm to an
ecosystem. Cutting down forest
Loggers then use to remove the largest
and best trees. When these big trees fall, many other
trees fall with them because of their shallow roots and
the network of vines connecting the trees in the forest's
canopy. This method causes considerable ecological
damage in tropical forests, but much less than that from
burning or clear-cutting forests.
A variation of clear-cutting that allows a more sustainable
timber yield without widespread destruction. involves clearcutting
a strip of trees along the contour of the land
within a corridor narrow enough to allow natural forest
regeneration within a few years. After regeneration,
loggers cut another strip next to the first, and so on.
usually burn only undergrowth
and leaf litter on the forest floor. They may kill seedlings
and small trees, but they spare most mature trees
and allow most wild animals to escape.
Occasional ______ _________have a number of ecological
benefits: they burn away flammable ground material
such as dry brush and help to prevent more destructive
fires; they also free valuable mineral nutrients tied up
in slowly decomposing litter and undergrowth; they
release seeds from the cones of tree species such as
lodgepole pines; they stimulate the germination of certain
tree seeds such as those of the giant sequoia and
jack pine; and they help to control tree diseases and
is an extremely hot fire that leaps from treetop
to treetop, burning whole trees. Usually
occur in forests that have not experienced surface fires
for several decades, a situation that allows dead wood,
leaves, and other flammable ground litter to accumulate.
These rapidly burning fires can destroy most vegetation,
kill wildlife, increase soil erosion, and burn or
damage human structures in their paths.
carefully controlled surface fires that reduce
flammable litter and decrease the chances
of damaging crown fires. D
occurs when a large, intact
area of habitat such as a forest or natural grassland is
divided, typically by roads, logging operations, crop
fields, and urban development, into smaller, isolated
patches or "habitat islands"
the public domain, unappropriated land belonging to the federal government that is subject to sale or other disposal under general laws and is not reserved for any particular governmental or public purpose.
unfenced grasslands in temperate and tropical
climates that supply forage, or vegetation for grazing
(grass-eating) and browsing (shrub-eating) animals. Cattle,
sheep, and goats graze on about 42% of the world's
multiple use land
Use of an ecosystem such as a
forest for a variety of purposes such as timber
harvesting, wildlife habitat, watershed protection,
restricted use land
Land that is only allowed limited amounts of recreation, hunting, and other human activities.
used to help protect species
such as the American bison. Land delegated by the government to preserve nature
national wildlife refuge
designation for certain protected areas of the United States managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service
a change in species composition, physical conditions, or other ecological factors at the boundary between two ecosystems
a commercial fishing technique. It uses a long line, called the main line, with baited hooks attached at intervals by means of branch lines called snoods (or gangions). A snood is a short length of line, attached to the main line using a clip or swivel, with the hook at the other end.
scraping and disturbing an area of the ocean floor
a large wall of netting deployed around an entire area or school of fish. The seine has floats along the top line with a lead line threaded through rings along the bottom. Once a school of fish is located, a skiff encircles the school with the net.
a level of exploitation or crop production that is maintained by restricting the quantity harvested to avoid long-term depletion.
the practice or industry of hunting and killing whales for their oil, meat, or whalebone.
generates more than $1 million per minute in tourist
expenditures. Wildlife tourism.
60 in the forests of Arizona
and New Mexico. Protected and brought back with successful recovery plan. Reintroduced after a 50 year absence.
172 in the southwestern
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. This treaty, signed by 175 countries, bans the
hunting, capturing, and selling of threatened or endangered
species. It lists some 900 species that cannot be
commercially traded as live specimens or for their parts
or products because they are in danger of extinction. It
also restricts international trade of roughly 5,000 species
of animals and 28,000 species of plants that are at
risk of becoming threatened.
Has helped to reduce the international trade
of many threatened animals, including elephants, crocodiles,
cheetahs, and chimpanzees. But the effects of
this treaty are limited because enforcement varies from
country to country, and convicted violators often pay
only small fines. Also, member countries can exempt
themselves from protecting any listed species, and much
of the highly profitable illegal trade in wildlife and wildlife
products goes on in countries that have not signed
Endangered Species Act
1973 (ESA; amended in
1982, 1985, and 1988) was designed to identify and protect
endangered species in the United States and abroad
Concept 9-4 209
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210 Chapter 9 Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach
(Concept 9-4). This act is probably the most far-reaching
environmental law ever adopted by any nation, which
has made it controversial.
Under the ESA, the National Marine Fisheries Service
(NMFS) is responsible for identifying and listing
endangered and threatened ocean species, while the
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is to identify
and list all other endangered and threatened species.
Any decision by either agency to add a species to, or
remove one from, the list must be based on biological
factors alone, without consideration of economic or
political factors. However, the two agencies can use economic
factors in deciding whether and how to protect
endangered habitat and in developing recovery plans
for listed species. The _________ also forbids federal agencies
(except the Defense Department) to carry out, fund, or
authorize projects that would jeopardize any endangered
or threatened species or destroy or modify its critical
anything that goes up and down a water column in the ocean
anything that lives in the bottom of the ocean/freshwater
top layer of freshwater
middle layer of freshwater
last layer of freshwater
standing bodies of freshwater such as lakes, ponds, and wetlands
flowing freshwater such as rivers and streams
Freshwater. Poor nutrients. Clear lakes.
lots of nutrients. Hard to see through.
when humans add nutrients to water on purpose or accidentally
good balance of clear and turbid
a tiny animals that form in massive colonies to make up coral reefs. They secrete calcium carbonate CaCO3 and live mutually with zooxanthellae (single-celled algae).
zooxanthellae or single celled algae
they live mutually with polyps to form coral reefs. They provide the polyps with food and O2 from photosynthesis.
this occurs when stresses such as increased temperature and acidity of ocean water kill polyps in coral reefs.
aquatic life zones
this is the name for saltwater and freshwater biomes.
the amounts of various salts such as NaCl dissolved in a given volume of water.
saltwater or marine life zones
aquatic life zones that include oceans and their bays, estuaries, coastal wetlands, shorelines, coral reefs, and mangrove forests.
freshwater life zones
aquatic life zones that include lakes, rivers, streams, and inland wetlands.
are any drifting organisms (animals, plants, archaea, or bacteria) that inhabit the pelagic zone of oceans, seas, or bodies of fresh water. They are defined by their ecological niche rather than phylogenetic or taxonomic classification. They provide a crucial source of food to larger, more familiar aquatic organisms such as fish and whales.
these are plankton that live near the water surface where there is sufficient light to support photosynthesis.
these are plankton that are primary consumbers (herbivores), which feed on phytoplankton, and secondary consumers, which feed on others in this group.
these are tiny plankton that are photosynthetic bacteria and are responsible for 70% of the primary productivity near the ocean surface.
these organisms are strong swimming consumers such as fish, turtles, and whales.
these are organisms that are bottom-dwellers such as oysters and sea stars, which anchor themselves to ocean bottom structures; clams and worms, which burrow into the sand or mud; and lobsters and crabs, which walk about on the sea floor.
these organisms, mostly bacteria, break down organic compounds in the dead bodies and wastes of aquatic organisms into nutrients that aquatic primary producers can use.
euphotic or photic zone
this is the upper layer of aquatic ecosystems through which light can penetrate.
cloudiness in aquatic ecosystems that can result from algal growth or from disturbances such as clearing of land and its runoff.
this is a major life zone of marine aquatic ecosystems. It is warm, nutrient-rich, shallow, and extends from the high tide mark on land to the gently shlopin, shallow edge of the continental shelf. It contains 90% of all marine species and is the site of most large commercial marine fisheries.
is a thin but distinct layer in an ocean in which temperature changes more rapidly with depth than it does in the layers above or below. It may be thought of as an invisible blanket which separates the upper mixed layer from the calm deep water below.
these are where rives meet the sea. They are partially enclosed bodies of water where seawater mixes with freshwater as well as nutrients and pollutants from streams, rivers, and runoff from the land.
a verticle zone in the ocean that is just below and is less populated than the euphotic zone. Sunlight does not reach here, so it is known as the midnight zone. Some species do not have eyes, however those possessing eyes in this zone include the viperfish and the frill shark. Many forms of nekton live in the bathyal zone, such as squid, large whales and octopuses, but this zone is difficult for fish to live in. Sponges, brachiopods, sea stars, and echinoids are also common in this zone. Some of the world's largest whales feed here.
a vertical zone in the ocean that contains the very deep benthic communities near the bottom of oceans. It remains in perpetual darkness and never receives daylight. Its permanent inhabitants, like the black swallower, tripod fish, deep-sea anglerfish and the giant squid, are able to withstand the immense pressures of the ocean depths. These regions are also characterized by continuous cold and lack of nutrients. The zone above is the bathyal zone.
is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain. Much of it was exposed during glacial periods, but is now submerged under relatively shallow seas and gulfs, and was similarly submerged during other interglacial periods. Under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, it's name was given a legal definition as the stretch of the seabed adjacent to the shores of a particular country to which it belongs. Such shores are also known as territorial waters.
these are coastal land areas covered with water all or part of the year- include river mouths, inlets, bays, sounds, coastal marshes, and mangrove forests. They are some of the earth's most productive ecosystems.
sea grass beds
these consist of at least 60 species of plants that grow underwater in shallow marine and estuarine areas along most continental coastlines. They support a variety of marine life and stabilize shorelines and reduce wave impacts. Think manatee!
is a distinct saline woodland or shrubland habitat characterized by a depositional coastal environments, where fine sediments (often with high organic content) collect in areas protected from high-energy wave action. They dominate three quarters of tropical coastlines. The saline conditions tolerated by various species range from brackish water, through pure seawater, to water concentrated by evaporation to over twice the salinity of ocean seawater.
are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of the Earth. Most places in the ocean usually experience two highes and two lows each day (semi-diurnal ), but some locations experience only one high and one low each day (diurnal ).
also known as the foreshore and seashore and sometimes referred to as the littoral zone, is the area that is above water at low tide and under water at high tide. This area can include many different types of habitats, with many types of animals like starfish, sea urchins, and some species of coral. Organisms in the this zone are adapted to an environment of harsh extremes. Water is available regularly with the tides but varies from fresh with rain to highly saline and dry salt with drying between tidal inundations. The action of waves can dislodge residents in the zone. With the zone's high exposure to the sun the temperature range can be anything from very hot with full sun to near freezing in colder climates.
low, narrow, sandy islands that form offshore, parallel to nearby coastlines.
is a coral island (or islands) that encircles a lagoon partially or completely.
part of an ocean that lies beyond the continental shelf.
this is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water. The increased availability in these regions results in high levels of primary productivity and thus fishery production. Ones that are driven by coastal currents or diverging open ocean have the greatest impact on nutrient-enriched waters and global fishery yields.
this is a continuous shower of mostly organic detritus falling from the upper layers of the water column. It is a significant means of exporting energy from the light-rich photic zone to the aphotic zone below. It can be an important food source for organisms living in the aphotic zone, particularly for organisms which live very deep in the water column.
these are a type of organism, such as oysters, clams, and sponges, that pass water through or over their bodies and extract nutrients from it.
integrated coastal management
is a process for the management of the coast using an integrated approach, regarding all aspects of the coastal zone, including geographical and political boundaries, in an attempt to achieve sustainability.
this is the largest estuary in the U.S. and it has been in serious trouble from water pollution, mostly due to human activities. It's oyster population has declined severely.
lentic freshwater life zones
freshwater life zones that include standing water such as lakes, ponds, and inland wetlands.
lotic freshwater life zones
freshwater life zones that include flowing water such as streams and rivers.
large natural bodies of standing freshwater formed when precipitation, runoff, streams, rivers, and groundwater seepage fill depressions in the earth's surface. Glaciers and volcanic activity can cause the depressions in the surface.
this is the top layer and part of a lake that is close to the shore. It has high biological diversity because of the ample sunlight and input of nutrients from the surrounding land. Species may include: rooted plants, turtles, frogs, crayfish, and fish such as bass, perch, and carp.
this is the well-lit, open surface waters in a lake, away from the shore. It can be defined as the lighted surface waters in the area where the lake bottom is too deep and unlit to support rooted aquatic plants. This area is occupied by a variety of phytoplankton, consisting of algae and cyanobacteria, as well as zooplankton, small crustaceans, and fish. Most photosynthesis takes place in this part of the lake.
this is a layer of deep, open water in a lake where it is too dark for photosynthesis. Oxygen levels are low here. Fishes adapted to the lake's cooler and darker water are found here.
this is the bottom layer of a lake, inhabited mostly by decomposers, detritus feeders, and some species of fish. It is nourished mainly by dead matter that falls from the zones above and by the sediment washing into the lake.
these are lakes that have a small supply of plant nutrients, thus, have low net primary productivity. They are often deep and have steep banks. These lakes are typically supplied by glaciers and are crystal clear.
this is a lake that has a large supply of nutrients, thus high net primary productivity. They are typically shallow and have murky brown or green water with high turbidity.
a process where human inputs from the atmosphere and from nearby urban and agricultural areas put excessive nutrients into lakes.
lakes that do not have too much nutrient enrichment or too little.
this is precipitation that does not sink into the ground or evaporate.
this is surface water that flows into streams.
watershed or drainage basin
this is an area of land where surface water from rain and melting snow or ice converges to a single point where the waters join another waterbody, such as a river, lake, reservoir, estuary, wetland, sea, or ocean.
this is an aquatic life zone of moving water. It is where headwaters, or highland streams are usually shallow, cold, clear, and swiftly flowing. There is a lot of DO, but low nutrients, so low in productivity. It is populated by cold-water fish species and alge and mosses adapted to this environment.
this is an aquatic life zone of moving water. It is somewhat wide, warm, and deep. It can be turbid and has less DO than source zone. It supports more producers than source zone and has warm-water fish species such as black bass.
this is an aquatic life zone of moving water. It flows through flat or nearly flat land adjacent to it and the land experiences flooding during periods of high discharge. It usually has higher temperatures and less DO. It supports a fairly large population of producers. The waters are murky.
an area at the mouth of a river that was built up by deposited sediment and contains coastal wetlands and estuaries.
these are lands located away from coastal areas that are covered with freshwater all or part of the time- excluding lakes, reservoirs, and streams. They include marshes, swamps, prairie holes, floodplains, and the arctic tundra in the summer.
these are wetlands that remain under water or are soggy for only a short time each year.
this is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams. They generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water.
levee or dyke
is an elongated naturally occurring ridge or artificially constructed fill or wall, which regulates water levels. It is usually earthen and often parallel to the course of a river in its floodplain or along low-lying coastlines.
are man-made channels for water.
when a species can no longer be found anywhere on the earth.
background extinction rate
a natural, low rate of species extinction.
this is expressed as a percentage or number of species that go extinct within a certain time period such as a year.
this is the extinction of many species in a relatively short period of time.
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
this was an assessment released in 2005. Over 1000 of the world's leading biological scientists analyzed the state of the Earth's ecosystems and provided summaries and guidelines for decision-makers. It concluded that human activity is having a significant and escalating impact on the biodiversity of world ecosystems, reducing both their resilience and biocapacity. It measures 24 ecosystem services concluding that only four have shown improvement over the last 50 years, fifteen are in serious decline, and five are in a stable state overall, but under threat in some parts of the world.
this is a biogeographic region with a significant reservoir of biodiversity that is under threat from humans. To qualify, a region must meet two strict criteria: it must contain at least 0.5% or 1,500 species of vascular plants as endemics, and it has to have lost at least 70% of its primary vegetation. Around the world, at least 25 areas qualify, with nine other possible candidates. These sites support nearly 60% of the world's plant, bird, mammal, reptile, and amphibian species, with a very high share of endemic species.
species that have so few individual survivors that the species could soon become extinct.
threatened or vulnerable species
species that still have enough remaining individuals to survive in the short term, but because of declining numbers, it is likely to become endangered in the near future.
International Union for Conservation of Nature or IUCN
The organization publishes the Red List, compiling information from a network of conservation organizations to rate which species are most endangered.
was a bird that existed in North America until the early 20th century when it went extinct due to hunting and habitat destruction.
This focuses on socially responsible travel, personal growth, and environmental sustainability. It typically involves travel to destinations where flora, fauna, and cultural heritage are the primary attractions. It is intended to offer tourists insight into the impact of human beings on the environment, and to foster a greater appreciation of our natural habitats.
an acrynm used to summarize the most important direct causes of extinction resulting from human activities.
this occurs when a large, intact area of habitat such as a forest or natural grassland is divided, typically by roads, logging operations, crop fields, and urban development, into smaller, isolated patches or "habitat islands".
european wild boars
populations of these organisms have been artificially introduced in some parts of the world, most notably the SE of the U.S., principally for hunting. They have caused significant ecological and economic damage. They eat almost anything, compete for food with endangered animals, use their noses to root up farm fields, and cause traffic accidents.
this is a deliberately introduced plant species, which grows rampant in the SE U.S. It was imported from Japan in an attempt to control soil erosion. It grows so rapidly and is so difficult to kill that it engulfs hillsides, gardens, trees, stream banks, and anything else in its path.
Argentina fire ant
this insect was accidentally introduced into the U.S. into Mobile, Al in the 1930s. They may have arrived on shiploads of lumber or coffee. They have no natural predators and have spread to much of the southern U.S. They cover many fields and invade yards with their mounds. They attack with burning stings.
these reptiles were both accidentally and intentionally introduced in the everglades in Fl. They are hard to find and kill, and they reproduce rapidly. They have huge appetites and they are competing with a keystone species, the alligator.
this pesticide biologically magnified in food webs and hit populations of fish-eating birds and predatory birds hard in the 1950s and 1960s (especially the badle eagle). This compound made birds' eggshells fragile. It was ban in the U.S. in 1972.
this is the increase in concentration of a substance that occurs in a food chain as a consequence of: (1) Persistence (can't be broken down by environmental processes), (2) Food chain energetics, (3) Low (or nonexistent) rate of internal degradation/excretion of the substance (often due to water-insolubility)
this occurs within a trophic level, and is the increase in concentration of a substance in certain tissues (fat) of organisms' bodies due to absorption from food and the environment. It is defined as occurring when uptake from the water is greater than excretion.
colony collapse disorder (CCD)
is a phenomenon in which worker bees from a beehive abruptly disappear. The term was first applied to a drastic rise in the number of disappearances of Western honey bee colonies in North America in late 2006. It is significant economically because many agricultural crops worldwide are pollinated by bees; and ecologically, because of the major role that bees play in the reproduction of plant communities in the wild.
is the United States federal executive department responsible for developing and executing U.S. federal government policy on farming, agriculture, and food. It aims to meet the needs of farmers and ranchers, promote agricultural trade and production, work to assure food safety, protect natural resources, foster rural communities and end hunger in the United States and abroad.
this is illegally killing a protected species.
US Fish and Wildlife Service
is a federal government agency within the United States Department of the Interior dedicated to the management of fish, wildlife, and natural habitats. The mission of the agency reads as "working with others to conserve, protect, and enhance fish, wildlife, plants and their habitats for the continuing benefit of the American people."
the term is commonly used for meat of terrestrial wild animals, killed for subsistence or commercial purposes throughout the humid tropics of the Americas, Asia, and Africa.
these creatures, in 2004, had a sharp population decline of 97% in India and South Asia due to the creatures eating dead cows given diclofenac, an anti-inflammatory drug. The die-off of these creatures led to a huge increase of wild dog populations, and hence, an increase in rabies.
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), 1975
this is a treaty that's aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten the survival of the species in the wild, and it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 33,000 species of animals and plants.
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
this is an international legally binding treaty with 3 main goals: 1.conservation of biological diversity 2.sustainable use of its components; and 3.fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources
Endangered Species Act of 1973
this act was designed to identify and protect endangered species in the U.S. and abroad. It was signed into law by President Nixon in 1973. The Act is administered by 2 federal agencies: the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
the was the very first U.S. federal wildlife refuge established by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1903 to help protect birds (esp. brown pelican) from extinction.
gene or seed banks
these preserve genetic information and endangered plant species by storing their seeds in refrigerated, low-humidity environments.
this involves collecting wild eggs laid by critically endangered bird species and then hatching them in zoos or research centers.
this is where some or all of the wild individuals of critically endangered species are collected for breeding in the aim of reintroducing the offspring into the wild. It was used to save the Cali. condor and peregrine falcon.
this states that when substantial preliminary evidence indicates that an activity can harm human health or the environment, we should take precautionary measures to prevent or reduce such harm even if some of the cause-and-effect relationships have not been fully established scientifically.
In the mid-1970s, this Kenyan woman organized the Green Belt Movement that organizes women in rural Kenya to plant trees, combat deforestation, restore their main source of fuel for cooking, generate income, and stop soil erosion. Since she started the movement, over 40 million trees have been planted. Over 30,000 women have been trained in forestry, food processing, bee-keeping, and other trades that help them earn income while preserving their lands and resources. Communities in Kenya (both men and women) have been motivated and organized to both prevent further environmental destruction and restore that which has been damaged. In 2004, she received the Nobel Peace Prize.
old-growth or primary forest
this is an uncut or regenerated forest that has not been seriously disturbed by human activities or natural disasters for several hundred years or more.
this is a stand of trees resulting from secondary ecological succession. These forests develop after the trees in an area have been removed by human activities, such as clear-cutting for timber or cropland, or by natural forces such as fire, hurricanes, or volcanic eruption.
tree plantation or farm or commercial forest
this is a managed forest containing one or two species of trees that are all of the same age.
a method where intermediate-aged or mature trees in a forest are cut singly or in small groups.
a method where loggers remove all of the trees from an area.
a method where clear-cutting is done on a strip of trees along a contour of the land within a corridor narrow enough to allow natural forest regeneration within a few years.
fires that usually burn only undergrowth and leaf litter on the forest floor. They may kill seedlings and small trees, but spare most mature trees and allow most animals to escape.
fires that are extremely hot and leap from treetop to treetop, burning whole trees. They destroy most vegetation, kill wildlife, increase soil erosion, and burn or damage human structures in their paths.
this is the temporary or permanent removal of large expanses of forest for agriculture, settlements, or other uses.
this is intentionally setting a small, contained fire to remove flammable small trees and underbrush in the highest-risk forest areas.
this is any wooden material that is gathered and used for fuel. It is a renewable resource, however, demand for this fuel can outpace its ability to regenerate on local and regional level. In some places in the world and through history, the demand has led to desertification.
this is a waste product from sugar cane processing that MIT is working on to make into charcoal.
this is where participating countries act as custodians of protected forest reserves in return for foreign aid or debt relief.
these are unfenced grasslands in temperate and tropical climates that supply forage, or vegetation for grazing (grass-eating) and browsing (shrub-eating) animals.
these are managed grasslands or fenced meadows usually planted with domesticated grasses or other forage crops such as alfalfa and clover for livestock to graze.
this occurs when too many animals graze for too long, damaging the grasses and their roots, and exceeding the carrying capacity of a rangeland area.
this is a method in which cattle are confined by portable fencing to one area for a short time (1-2 days) and then moved to a new location.
after becoming almost extinct in much of the western US, this animal was listed as an endangered species in 1974. 31 members of this keystone species were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park in 1995 and 1996. By the end of 2009, there were 116 of them in the park.
buffer zone concept
this is a way to design and manage nature reserves. It means strictly protecting an inner core of a reserve and allowing public access to the outsides.
this is a strip of land that aids in the movement of species between disconnected areas of their natural habitat. Urbanization can split up such areas, causing animals to lose both their natural habitat and the ability to move between regions to use all of the resources they need to survive. It is a possible solution to habitat fragmentation.
this is land officially designated as an area where natural communities have not been seriously disturbed by humans and where human activities are limited by law. Theodore Roosevelt was the 1st U.S. president to set aside protected areas as these.
Wilderness Act (WA)
this act allowed the government to protect some 9 million acres of undeveloped tracts of public land from development. The act was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964.
the idea that we must focus more on protecting and sustaining ecosystems, and the biodiversity contained within them, than on saving individual species.
these are areas especially rich in plant species that are found nowhere else and are in great danger of extinction.
life raft ecosystems
these are highly stressed areas where poverty levels are high and where a large part of the economy depends on various ecosystem services that are being degraded severely enough to threaten the well-being of people and other forms of life.
this is the process of repairing damage caused by humans to the biodiversity and dynamics of natural ecosystems. Ex.: replanting trees
a type of conservation biology that focuses on inventing, establishing, and maintaining new habitats to conserve species diversity in places where people work, live, and play. (Sharing the spaces we dominate with other species)
an order of mostly marine mammals divided into 2 major groups: toothed whales and baleen whales.
these are a group of cetaceans which includes the sperm whale, killer whale, and the dolphin.
these are a group of cetaceans which includes the blue whale, humpback whale, and minke whale.
International Whaling Commission (IWC)
this was established in 1946 to regulate the whaling industry by setting annual quotas for various whale species to prevent overharvesting. It imposed a moratorium on whaling in 1986.
The Nature Conservancy
this is a US charitable environmental organization that works to preserve the lands and waters on which all life depends. It was founded in 1951 and works in more than 30 countries, including all of the US. It has over 1 million members, and has protected more than 119 million acres of land and 5,000 miles of rivers worldwide. It also operates more than 100 marine conservation projects globally.
this fish reaches sexually maturity rapidly, has large number of offspring, and is protected by venomous spines. In the eastern coastal waters of the US, it has few predators. It is native to the western Pacific Ocean and probably was released from outdoor aquariums in Miami during hurricane Andrew.
This fish was deliberately introduced to Africa's Lake Victoria and has played a key role in a major loss of biodiversity, especially in chchlid species, and has had huge social effects.
this invasive plant in Africa's Lake Victoria is supported by nutrient runoff. It grows in huge mats, blocks sunlight, deprives fish and plankton of oxygen, and reduces the diversity of important aquatic plant species in the lake. Scientists are now introducing 2 weevils that feed on it.
this is a concentration of a particular wild aquatic species suitable for commercial harvesting in a given ocean area or inland body of water.
this is defined as the area of ocean needed to sustain the fish consumption of an average person, a nation, or the world.
this is created with overfishing. It is when it is no longer profitable to continue harvesting a species.
Atlantic Cod Fishery
This fishery, located off the coast of Newfoundland, Canada, collapsed in 1992.
a fishing method used to catch fishes and shellfish, especially cod, flounder, shrimp, and scallops, that live on or near the ocean floor. It involves dragging a funnel-shaped net held open at the neck along the ocean bottom.
a fishing method used to catch surface-dwelling species such as tuna, mackerel, anchovies, and herring, which tend to feed in schools near the surface or in shallow areas. It usually involves a spotter plane.
a fishing method which involves putting out lines up to 60 miles long, hung with thousands of baited hooks. It is used to catch open-ocean fish like swordfish, tuna, and sharks.
a fishing method where fish are caught by huge drifting nets that can hang as deep as 50 feet below the surface and extend 40 miles long.
these are unwanted fish, marine mammals, sea turtles, and seabirds caught.
6 of the 7 species of this marine creature are either critically endangered or endangered due to its reproduction success and human impact (fishing methods, hunting for its meat and eggs, pollution, etc.). TEDs are being used to keep them from getting caught in nets.
Law of the Sea Treaty
This treaty defines the rights and responsibilities of nations in their use of the world's oceans, establishing guidelines for businesses, the environment, and the management of marine natural resources.
marine protected areas (MAPs)
these are areas of ocean partially protected from human activities.
these are marine areas declared off-limits to destructive human activities in order to enable their ecosystems to recover and flourish.
maximum sustainable yield (MSY) model
this model projects the maximum number of individuals that can be harvested annually from fish or shellfish stocks without causing a population drop.
optimum sustained yield (OSY) model
this model takes into account interactions among species and provides more room for error.
where fishing communities have developed allotment and enforcement systems for controlling fish catches in which each fisher gets a share of the total allowable catch.
this is a system in which coastal communities and the government work together to manage fisheries.
This is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programs. It's official goal is the reduction of poverty. All of its decisions must be guided by a commitment to promote foreign investment, international trade and facilitate capital investment.
Individual Transfer Rights (ITRs) or fish shares
The regulator sets a species-specific total allowable catch (TAC), typically by weight and for a given time period. A dedicated portion of the TAC is allocated to individuals. Quotas can typically be bought, sold and leased, a feature called transferability.
this is seafood from either fished or farmed sources that can maintain or increase production in the future without jeopardizing the ecosystems from which it was acquired.
Marine Stewardship Council
this is an independent non-profit organization which sets a standard for sustainable fishing. Fisheries that wish to demonstrate they are well managed and sustainable are assessed by a team of experts who are independent of both the fishery and this organization. It's mission is to use its ecolabel and fishery certification program to contribute to the health of the world's oceans by recognizing and rewarding sustainable fishing practices, influencing the choices people make when buying seafood, and working with partners to transform the seafood market to a sustainable basis.
this is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs and aquatic plants. It involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the harvesting of wild fish.
this allows destruction of existing wetlands as long as an equal area of the same type of wetland is created or restored.
Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP)
Agreed upon in 1990, it was the largest ecological restoration project in the world. It was a necessary plan due to draining, diverting, paved over, polluting, and development of the Florida everglades.
this is an invasive species of the Great Lakes. It is a parasite that attaches itself to almost any kind of fish and kills the victim by sucking out its blood. It has depleted populations such as lake trout.
this organism arrived in ballast water near Detroit. It reproduces rapidly and has no known natural enemies in the Great Lakes. It competes with native species for resources, has clogged irrigation pipes, shut down water intake pipes for power plants and city water suppliews, fouled beaches, jammed ships' rudders, and grows in huge masses on boat hulls, piers, pipes, rocks, or any surface.
this is the most recent introduced species to the Great Lakes. It was imported by catfish farmers to remove suspended matter and algae from aquaculture farm ponds in the south. They are highly prolific fish with a voracious appetite and have the ability to jump and injure boaters.
National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, 1968
this act was to establish protection of rivers with outstanding wildlife, geological, scenic, recreational, historical, or cultural values.
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