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Exam 2- Psychology
Terms in this set (50)
The term hypermnesia refers to the:
enhancement of memory through hypnosis
Dreaming usually takes place during _______ sleep and is typically accompanied by _______.
REM; physiological arousal and rapid movement of the eyes
Barbiturates are also commonly referred to as:
inhibit the activity of the central nervous system
People with narcolepsy:
often experience episodes of cataplexy, which can be triggered by a sudden, intense emotion
Chemical substances, such a paint solvents, spray paint, and gasoline, that are used to produce an alteration in consciousness are called:
Which of the following characterizes obstructive sleep apnea?
The sleeper repeatedly stops breathing during sleep
sleep disorders involving disruptions in the amount, quality, or timing of sleep
_______ is the capacity to selectively focus senses and awareness on particular stimuli or aspects of the enviroment
Caffeine promotes wakefulness, mental alertness, vigilance, and faster thought process by stimulating the release of ______ in the brains prefrontal cortex.
Chronic, long-term use of marijuana is associated with all of the following except
violent or aggressive outbursts
Where is the suprachiasmatic nucleus located?
in the hypothalamus
Meditation techniques that involve focusing your awareness on an image, a word, a phrase, or your breathing are referred to as _______ techniques.
The term circadian rhythm refers to the:
consistent, daily functions in many biological and psychological processes
Paradoxical sleep is to _______ as quiet sleep is to ______.
In the activation- synthesis model of dreaming, what is activated?
circuits at the base of the brain that arouse more sophisticated brain areas, such as visual and auditory centers
What is a lucid dream?
a dream in which you become aware that you are dreaming while still sleeping
REM sleep is also called
John B. Watson believed that psychology should sudy
What is the "law of effect"?
It was a principle formulated by Edward Thorndike that described how voluntary behaviors can be modified by their consequences.
Pavlov found that once he conditioned a dog to salivate in response to a tone, a tone that was slightly higher or lower in pitch would also make the dog salivate. This phenomenon is called:
A number of factors increase the probability that a behavior will be imitated. Which of the following is not one of the factors?
if the people to be imitated are indifferent or uncaring and seldom get rewarded
Partial reinforcement is to _______ as continuous reinforcement is to ________.
A Skinner box is:
experimental apparatus used to study the relationship between active behaviors and their consequences.
In operant conditioning, a discriminative stimulus is defined as a(n):
environmental stimulus or cue in the presence of which a particular response is more likely to be reinforced.
Which of the following statements best captures the basic idea of operant conditioning?
Behavior is shaped and maintained by its consequences.
The process of learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses is called:
The evolutionary approach to classical conditioning emphasizes that:
an animal's unique characteristics and natural behavior patterns can influence what it is capable of learning.
The famous "Little Albert" study conducted by John Watson and Rosalie Rayner demonstrated:
that it was possible to classically condition an emotional reaction to a previously neutral stimulus.
Essentially, classical conditioning is a process of:
learning an association between two stimuli
In classical conditioning, if the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus, what will occur?
In learning theory, the cognitive perspective emphasizes:
the role played by mental processes in learning
The phenomenon called learned helplessness was identified by two young psychology graduate students named:
Martin Seligman and Stephen Maier
was both the experimenter and the only participant in his pioneering research on forgetting
Short-term memory is often referred to as _______ memory.
Which of the following is NOT a common strategy used to test for recall of information from long-term memory?
The tip-of-the-tongue experience is a common example of:
Explicit memory is to _______ as implicit memory is to _______.
declarative memory; nondeclarative memory
Memory failure is formally defined as:
the metal processes that enable us to acquire, retain, and retrieve info
The brains of people with Alzhiemers disease develop:
an abumdance of beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles
Which brain region is involved in retrieving and organizing information that is associated with episodic and autobiographical memories?
the frontal lobes
The process of converting new long-term memories into stable, enduring memory codes is called:
To help understand how neurons change in response to the formation of a new memory, researchers have extensively studied:
the sea snail Aplysia
Guiding Karl Lashley's initial research on memory was his belief that memory:
was localized or stored in a specific brain area
According to _____ theory, we forget memories because we don't use them and they simply fade away over time as a matter of normal brain processes.
refers to remembering to do something in the future
Auditory sensory memory:
lasts longer than visual sensory memory
In order for chunking to work:
retrieval of meaningful long-term memory information is often necessary.
According to the working memory model developed by British psychologist Alan Baddeley, the "central executive":
controls attention, integrates information, and initiates retrieval.
The term source confusion refers to:
a memory distortion that occurs when the true source of the memory is forgotten or confused with another memory.
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