Florida Educator Test- vocabulary

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Accomodation
Piaget's term for changing or increasing one's schemata from one cognitive level to the next
Acculturation
process of adapting to a new or different culture
achievement
amount a student has learned in a given area
advanced organizers
frame work for understanding the material to be taught, which is introduced prior to the lesson
affective domain
attitudinal and emotional areas of learning, such as feelings and values
affixes
clusters of letters that are morphological or meaningful structures rather than phonetic structures, which makes them easier for students to learn
Analogy
a relation of likeness between two things
aptitude test
measures natural ability, predicts subsequent performance
assertive discipline
classroom management alpproch based on establishing clear limits and expectation, insisting on acceptable student behavior and delivering appropriate consequences when rules are broken
assimilation
process of changing one's own culture to the ddominant cultural norms
bottom up processing
starting with skills and moving to whole knowledge, ex: learning sounds, then words, then sentences, etc
Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education
Supreme court declared school segregation to be illegal, schools are required to reach racial balance among student population
bilingual education
educational program which uses more than one language as a medium of instruction, children are usually taught academic concepts in native language first, while they learn English, responsible for discover learning
Chapter 1 - Educational Improvement Act
Federal funds aimed at offering support for minority, low income and under achieving schools
classical condtioning
type of learning, identified by Pavlov, in which a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that elicits an emotional or physiological response. After a period of time, the neutral stimulus alone will elicit a similar response
code of ethics
formal statement of appropriate professional behaviors
cognitive development
gradual development of greater mental processes and thinking
cognitive domain
Boom's taxonomy, memory and reasoning objectives. The area of learning that involves th eacquisition and utilizations of knowledge
compensatory education
educational support to provide a more equal opportunity for disadvantaged students to attain an education through such activities as remedial instruction, speacial activities or early learning
competency based teacher education
the general process by which the state provides a credential to an individual. May require individual to demonstrate a mastery of minimum essential generic and specialization competencies and other related criteria
conservation
The Piagetian term for knowledge that certain physical attributes of objects, such as mass and weight, does not vary when the object changes shape.
Convergent Thinker
Seeking a single correct answer to a problem or task, common type in thinking that results in a conventional answer. Only one correct answer
Contextual analysis
Trying to identify unknown words by the sense of the sentence
Core curriculum
A common course of study for all students often called for by essentialism reforms in the 1980's
Criterion referenced test
Testing in which scores are compared to a set of performance standards
Critical thinking
one's ability to analyze situations critically
cultural pluralism
society made up of many different cultural groups coming together to form a unified whole, retaining characteristics of each group
decentralization
responsibility and authority are assigned to subordinate positions, site based management
decoding
metacognitive strategy to utilize in order to recognize a word
deduction
reasoning from general to the particular, conclusion follows from the promise stated, top-down = laws, rules
de facto segregation
segregation that occurs when widespread individual preferences, sometimes backed up with private pressure, lead to separation.
DeJure Segregation
segregation of students on the basis of law, school policy or a practice designed to accomplish such separation
diagnostic test
individually administered standardized test to identify specific learning problem, ungraded, nonstandard formative test given at a midpoint in instruction to determine students achievement and weakness
discovery learning
Bruner's approach to teaching in which students are exposed to specific examples and use these to discover general principles and relationships, contrasted with expository teaching, AHA, inquiry based
disequilibration
when learning takes place, individuals experience this when changing the way they think and perceive certain ideas
divergent Thinkier
open ended type of thinking that extends in different directions and considers multiple answers to a question, allows for creative thinking and many answers
due process
procedural requirement that must be followed to safeguard individuals from arbitrary, capricious or unreasonable policies, practices or actions
Erik Erickson
developed taxonomy of personality development, divided development into 8 stages. Each stage is determined by the individuals ability to balance the evolving self with social demands
Ethics
a branch of philosophy that examines the right and wrong of human conduct
ethnic group
a group that is socially defined on the basis of its cultural characteristics, a distinct culture or subculture
etymology
study of words
extinction
gradual disappearance of a learned response in operant conditioning, when reinforcement is withheld. IN classical conditioning, occurs when conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without any longer being paired with the unconditioned stimulus
explicit instruction
Teacher helps students develop a clear understanding of how to use strategies through modeling, mini lessons, think alouds, groups and guided reading
extrinsic motivation
motivation created by external events or rewards
field independent learners
students who are not dependent on the teacher, other students and the learning environment
field dependent learners
students who learn best with teacher and peer interaction and who rely heavily on the learning environment
fixed interval schedule
reinforcement schedule in which a predetermined interval must occur between each reinforced response, regardless of the number of responses the subject makes
fixed ratio schedule
schedule of reinforcement in which a predetermined fixed number of responses must occur
formative evaluation
assessing students performance while the instruction or lesson is still in process (midterms), to gauge how well a student has done so far
generalization
classical and operant condtitioning, response conditioned to one stimulus spreads to similar stimuli
William Glasser
developed a taxonomy of human needs and behavior based on control theory, choice theroy - basic needs: power or recognition, survival, love and belonging, free choice and fun
grade equivalent score
measure of grade level based on a comparison with average scores from each grade, ex: 11.5 = halfway through 11th grade
grapheme
smallest part of written language that represents a phoneme in the spelling of a word, ex: b, p, sh, ch
head start
federally funded compensatory education program for children in poverty
heuristics
general strategy used in attempting to solve problems, discoveries that result from investication made by the student
hidden curriculum
values and beliefs that educators teach children not considered part of the school's stated curriculum
homogeneous grouping
instructional group of students with common abilities, opposite of heterogeneous group
homographs
two words identical in spelling, but different in derivation and meaning; close/close
homophones
words spelled differently with different meanings but are spelled alike; blue/blew
idiom
a phrase whose words put together have a different meaning than separately; a blessing in disguise
I message
non-accusatory statement describing how something affects you, frees students to change behavior voluntarily
inductive reasoning
reasoning from the particular to the general, making a conclusion based on facts
intrinsic motivation
internal source of motivations such as curiosity or a desire to learn, actitivies that are their own reward
Kohlberg
theorist who gave hypothetical moral dilemmas where competing courses of action were possible and asked them to indicate what an actor should do and why, stages of moral development
Lau v Nichols
1974 Supreme Court case, landmark case for bilingual education in the US, all non and limited English speaking students are entitled to language instruction
Learning styles
visual, auditory, tactile
mainstreaming
exceptional children receive special education in the regular classroom for as much time as possible
Abraham Maslow
Theorist whose model of human development identifies an hierarchy of human need, beinning with our basic biological need and progressing to our highest order need for self actualization
mean
average score
median
centermost score, if even number of scores, average to the two centermost scores
metacognition
thinking about your thinking
mode
number most often used
morpheme
smallest meaningful unit of grammar
Morrill Act
Federal Legislation passed in 1862, granted states federal land to establish colleges for agriculture and mechanical arts, second act established in 1890 gave same to separate but equal colleges for African Americans
multicultural education
approach to ed that recognizes cultural diversity and fosters cultural enrichment of all children and youth
Nation at Risk
1983 national commission report calling for extensive educational reforms including more course requirements, more stringent college entrance requrements, updated books and longer school days and years
norm referenced tests
these tests compare a students test performance to the performances of other students in the class or group previously tested
Northwest Ordinance
the law that advocated that some kind of elementary education should be provided free, at public expense and under public control, for everyone who could not afford or did not want private schooling
operant conditioning
type of learning in which voluntary behaviors are strengthened or weakened, depending on their consequences
phonics
the understanding that there is a predictable relationship between phoneme (spoken) and grapheme (written)
Jean Piaget
theorist, mental cognitive development focusing on how children learn; 4 stages - sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, formal operations
progressivism
school of thought based on theory that the world is always changing and new situations require new solutions to problems, new problem solving theories
Public Law 94-142
education of all handicapped children act passed in 1975
reliability
the extent to which the test results can be reproduced
remediation
educational program designed to teach a person to overcome a handicap through training and education
schemata
in cognitive learning, large basic units for organizing information, guides that describe what to expect in a given situation, how elements fit together and relationships among elements
shaping
behavior management method for developing an appropriate behavior in which the teacher rewards responses that are are successively more similar to the ultimate desired response, desired response broken down into smaller steps
BF Skinner
Theorist, classroom management as the process of modifying behavior, foster desirable, eliminate undesirable behavior, reinforce appropriate
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