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Chapter 8: Policy Formulation
Terms in this set (25)
The third stage of policy development is called policy formulation. According to Fowler, what three major processes occur during the formulation stage?
1. The policy is expressed in written language
2. Funding must be in place
3. Voting occurs
The policy formulation process occurs in three arenas. What are they?
2. administrative agencies
Describe the process of policy formulation in legislatures
It is a conservative process meaning that passing laws is difficult, there are many barriers to overcome, and a large majority of bills introduced in legislatures in the US never become laws.
What is a legislative proposal?
a serious recommendation for a policy change in the current or next legislative session; it is the first step in policy formulation.
Where do legislative proposals come from?
5. Interest groups
What can legislators do in the policy formulation process that other groups cannot do?
They can introduce it directly into his or her house of the legislature
What is the second stage in policy formulation?
the transformation of a legislative proposal into a bill, or proposed law
What are the major components of a correctly drafted bill?
2. Text that enacts the legislation
3. Definitions about key terms
5.List of portions of existing legal code potentially affected
What are the formal procedures that must be followed for a bill to become a law?
1. Bill must be sponsored by a member of the house
2. Sponsor introduces the bill by submitting it to a secretary or clerk
3. It is then assigned an identifying number (letters for the house, numbers that indicate the order among the bills introduced)
4. Moves to reference committee
5. Moves to rules committee
6. Bill is sent to other house for same process
7. Chief executive votes to accept or veto
8. If approved, it becomes law
What does the Reference Committee do?
assigns the bill to an appropriate standing committee for hearings, debate, possible revisions, and a decision on whether it should proceed
What does the rules committee do?
schedules the bill for a debate on the floor of the house and a vote of the whole house
In order for a bill to become law, a bill must complete the formulation process in a single session of a legislature, which is how long?
Normally a two-year period
As important as supporting the policy during the formulation stage is understanding the______________
Policy formulation in administrative agencies deals with ________________
Why do administrative agencies have to write rules?
Because US legislatures write vague laws, the admin. agencies must fill in the details by developing rules, regulations, and policy guidelines
Administrative rules serve three different functions, what are they?
1. fill in gaps in the law that lawmakers either did not recognize or left to the experts working in government agencies
2. defining the key terms in a law or in the body of laws governing a specific domain.
3. write the rules that define their own internal procedures, including procedures for writing rules
In formulating rules, agencies usually follow a three-step procedure, what is it?
1. gathering information
2.providing for public participation
3. submitting their proposed rules to a designated individual or panel for approval
True or False: Administrative agencies must have their rules approved by someone external for the formulation process
What function does the Federal Register play?
It publishes announcements of the USDOE's intention to develop rules, identifies the sections of the law for which rules will be made, and summarizes the generalities of the proposed rules.
On the state level, who is typically responsible for writing rules for education policy?
The State Department of Education
What role do judges play in eduction policy formulation?
They shape policy and many eduction policy questions are decided by judges, not legislatures.
What are the steps taken by the US Supreme Court for the policy formation process?
1. Chief Justice: chairs closed meeting and facilitates decision making
2. A conference is held to discuss the cases and argue about them
3. Final vote is taken and outcome is recorded
4. An opinion is written stating the decision and the court's reason for it
5. The opinion is discussed and suggestions are made
6. A dissenting opinion can be written (long process)
7. Opinion Day: occurs once an agreement occurs
List the general principles school leaders should know about policy formulation
1. know the process
2. follow government activity
3. work with others
4. set priorities
What are the three approaches to influencing policy formulation?
1. government relations (solid relationships with public officials)
2. working through professional organizations (networking)
3. lobbying(contacting officials about specific bills or rules)
When becoming involved in political activity, one must be aware of the following possible legal pitfalls:
1. Partisan activity (remain nonpartisan)
2. Campaign contributions (do not make them using school funds)
3. Gifts (do not give or accept)
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